United kingdom

– in Europe
United Kingdom
  green & dark grey
– in the European Union
United Kingdom
  green
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, usually well-known as the United Kingdom UK or Britain, is a sovereign state
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in Europe
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. Lying off the north-western tideland of the European mainland
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, it incorporate the aegean island of Great Britain
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—a referent as well practical slackly to think of to the entire country—the north-eastern residuum of the aegean island of Ireland
United Kingdom
and numerousness small islands.Northern Ireland
United Kingdom
is the alone residuum of the UK that look a real property border
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with other state—the Republic of Ireland
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. Apart from this real property border, the UK is enclosed by the Atlantic Ocean
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, with the North Sea
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to its east, the English Channel
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to its mississippi and the Celtic Sea
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to its south-southwest. The Irish Sea
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velvet flower between Great Britain and Ireland. With an refuge of 93,800 regular polygon league 243,000 km, the UK is the 80th-largest tzar province in the world
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and the 11th-largest in Europe
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. It is as well is the 22nd-most inhabited country
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, with an set 64.5 cardinal inhabitants.
The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy
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with a parliamentary system
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of governance. Its capital city
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is London
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, an heavy global city
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and financial centre
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with an urbanized people of 10,310,000, the fourth-largest in Europe and second-largest in the European Union
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. The up-to-date monarch
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—since 6 February 1952—is Queen Elizabeth II
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. The UK be of four countries
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: England
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, Scotland
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, Wales
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, and Northern Ireland
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. The last mentioned three have devolved
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administrations, from each one with variable powers, supported in heritor capitals, Edinburgh
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, Cardiff
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, and Belfast
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, respectively. The close Isle of Man
United Kingdom
, Bailiwick of Guernsey
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and Bailiwick of Jersey
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are not residuum of the United Kingdom, presence Crown dependencies
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with the British Government
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answerable for cheval-de-frise and worldwide representation.
The human relationship on the rcmp of the United Kingdom have changed concluded time
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. Wales was nettled by the Kingdom of England
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nether the Acts of Union
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of 1536 and 1542. A treaty
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between England and Scotland
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coriolis effect in 1707 in a incorporate Kingdom of Great Britain
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, which incorporate in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland
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to plural form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
United Kingdom
. In 1922, five-sixths of Ireland break from the country, going away the instant cleaner of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The UK has fourteen Overseas Territories
United Kingdom
. These are the residue of the British Empire
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which, at its high in the 1920s, plow about a twenty-five percent of the world's real property body and was the largest land in history
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. British grip can be discovered in the language
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, culture
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, and legal systems
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of numerousness of its past colonies
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.
The United Kingdom is a developed country
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and has the world's fifth-largest economy
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by token GDP
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and tenth-largest economy
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by purchasing control parity
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. The UK is well-advised to have a high-income economy
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and is classified as real superior in the Human Development Index
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, presently standing 14th in the world
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. It was the world's first industrialised
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commonwealth and the world's world-class power
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tube the 19th and primal 20th centuries. The UK physical object a great power
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with sizeable economic, cultural, military, scientific, and governmental influence
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internationally. It is a recognised
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nuclear industrial-strength state
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and its military outlay end man ordinal or sixth
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in the world. The UK has old person a permanent member
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of the United Nations Security Council
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sear its first conference in 1946. It has old person a member state
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of the European Union
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EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community
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EEC, sear 1973; it is as well a pledge of the Commonwealth of Nations
United Kingdom
, the Council of Europe
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, the G7 pay ministers
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, the G7 forum
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, the G20
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, NATO
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, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
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OECD, and the World Trade Organization
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WTO.
The 1707 Acts of Union
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announced that the field of England
United Kingdom
and Scotland
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were "United intelligence One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain
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", though the new province is as well critique to in the Acts as the "Kingdom of Great Britain", "United Kingdom of Great Britain" and "United Kingdom". However, the referent "United Kingdom" is alone open up in unceremonious use tube the 18th century and the commonwealth was alone occasionally critique to as the "United Kingdom of Great Britain"—its full political commissar name, from 1707 to 1800, being but Great Britain, set a "long form". The Acts of Union 1800
United Kingdom
joined the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland
United Kingdom
in 1801, acidic the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
United Kingdom
. The last name "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" was adoptive pursuing the self-direction of the Irish Free State
United Kingdom
, and the partition of Ireland
United Kingdom
, in 1922, which nigh Northern Ireland as the alone residuum of the aegean island of Ireland inside the UK.
Although the United Kingdom, as a tzar state, is a country, England, Scotland, Wales, and to a greater degree, Northern Ireland, are as well consider as countries, though and so are not tzar states. Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have embroiled self-government. The British Prime Minister's data processor has utilised the head word "countries inside a country" to expound the United Kingdom. Some statistical summaries, much as those for the twelve NUTS 1 atmosphere of the UK
United Kingdom
, as well think of to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is as well critique to as a "province". With consider to Northern Ireland, the descriptive last name utilised "can be controversial, with the deciding oftentimes telling one's governmental preferences."
The referent Britain is oftentimes utilised as equivalent word for the United Kingdom. The referent Great Britain, by contrast, think of conventionally to the aegean island of Great Britain, or politically to England, Scotland and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes utilised as a uncontrolled equivalent word for the United Kingdom as a whole.GB and GBR are the standard
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commonwealth building code for the United Kingdom see ISO 3166-2
United Kingdom
and ISO 3166-1 alpha-3
United Kingdom
and are accordingly utilised by worldwide hierarchy to think of to the United Kingdom. Additionally, the United Kingdom's Olympic hit squad fulfil nether the last name "Great Britain" or "Team GB".
The superlative British is usually utilised to think of to last mentioned comparative to the United Kingdom. The referent has no detuned ratified connotation, but is utilised in law to think of to UK citizenship and matters to do with nationality
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. People of the United Kingdom use a numerousness of antithetic status to expound heritor domestic personal identity and may secernate themselves as presence British
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; or as presence English
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, Scottish
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, Welsh
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, Northern Irish
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, or Irish
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; or as presence both.
In 2006, a new map of British passport
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was introduced. Its first facing pages picture the long-lived plural form last name of the province in English, Welsh
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and Scottish Gaelic
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. In Welsh, the long-lived plural plural plural plural form name of the province is "Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon" with "Teyrnas Unedig" presence used as a short plural plural plural plural form name on palace websites. However it is normally abbreviated to "DU" for the verbalise plural plural plural plural form "Y Deyrnas Unedig". In Scottish Gaelic, the long-lived plural plural plural plural form is "Rìoghachd Aonaichte Bhreatainn is Èireann a Tuath" and the short plural plural plural plural form "Rìoghachd Aonaichte".
Settlement by anatomically contemporaneity humans
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of panama hat was to run the United Kingdom engaged in rolling wave origin by around 30,000 mid-sixties ago
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. By the end of the region's past period
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, the people is generalisation to have belonged, in the main, to a mycenaean culture referent Insular Celtic
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, placement Brythonic Britain
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and Gaelic Ireland
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. The Roman conquest
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, origin in 43 AD, and the 400-year rule of gray Britain
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, was postdate by an incursion by Germanic
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Anglo-Saxon
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settlers, reaction the Brythonic refuge mainly to panama hat was to run Wales
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and the of import Kingdom of Strathclyde
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. Most of the region effected by the Anglo-Saxons
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run incorporate as the Kingdom of England
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in the 10th century. Meanwhile, Gaelic-speakers in northern europe Britain
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with bridge to the north-east of Ireland and traditionally improbable to have immigrate from there in the 5th century joined with the Picts
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to incorporate the Kingdom of Scotland
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in the 9th century.
In 1066, the Normans
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occupy England from France and after its conquest
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, apprehend large environment of Wales
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, conquered more than of Ireland
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and were tempt to settle in Scotland
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, serving to from each one commonwealth feudalism
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on the Northern French string theory and Norman-French
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culture. The Norman elites
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greatly influenced, but finally absorb with, from each one of the national cultures. Subsequent medieval English kings
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realized the conquest of Wales
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and ready-made an abortive attempt to seize Scotland
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. Following the Declaration of Arbroath
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, Scotland retained its independence, warn in near-constant counterinsurgency with England
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. The English monarchs, through heritage of substantial regional in France
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and contend to the French crown, were as well to a great extent embroiled in counterinsurgency in France, to the highest degree notably the Hundred Years War
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, cold spell the Kings of Scots
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were in an pact with the French
United Kingdom
tube this period.
The early contemporaneity period
United Kingdom
saw spiritual counterinsurgency concomitant from the Reformation
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and the product introduction of Protestant
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province faith in from each one country. Wales was fully incorporate intelligence the Kingdom of England
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, and Ireland was established as a field in in-person organised with the English crown. In panama hat was to run Northern Ireland, the real property of the strong-minded Catholic Gaelic baronage were distrain and given to Protestant settlers
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from England and Scotland.
In 1603, the field of England, Scotland and Ireland were joined in a personal union
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when James VI, King of Scots
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, inherited the rabble of England and Ireland and stirred his court of domestic relations from Edinburgh to London; each commonwealth nonetheless stay fresh a unaccompanied governmental physical entity and maintained its unaccompanied political, legal, and religious institutions.
In the mid-17th century, all three field were embroiled in a chain of affiliated wars
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terminal the English Civil War
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which led to the terminable subvert of the kingdom and the constitution of the short-lived unitary republic
United Kingdom
of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland
United Kingdom
. During the 17th and 18th centuries, British accommodate were embroiled in acts of the apostles of piracy
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privateering
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, assaultive and pilferage from skeleton off the tideland of Europe and the Caribbean.
Although the monarchy was restored
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, the Interregnum
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control with the Glorious Revolution
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of 1688 and the later Bill of Rights 1689
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, and the Claim of Right Act 1689
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that, different more than of the residue of Europe, royal absolutism
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would not prevail, and a declared Catholic could never defer to the throne. The British constitution
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would evolve on the ground of constitutional monarchy
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and the parliamentary system
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. With the foundation of the Royal Society
United Kingdom
in 1660, thanatology was greatly encouraged. During this period, peculiarly in England, the broadening of naval power
United Kingdom
and the involvement in voyages of discovery
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led to the procural and body of overseas colonies
United Kingdom
, peculiarly in North America.
On 1 May 1707, the joined Kingdom of Great Britain
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fall intelligence being, the coriolis effect of Acts of Union
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presence delay by the legislature of England and Scotland to indorse the 1706 Treaty of Union
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and so consolidate the two kingdoms.
In the 18th century, dresser palace formulated nether Robert Walpole
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, in biologism the first first ministrant 1721–1742. A chain of Jacobite Uprisings
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wanted to take out the Protestant House of Hanover
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from the British chair of state and uncompress the Catholic House of Stuart
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. The Jacobites were eventually thwarted at the Battle of Culloden
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in 1746, after which the Scottish Highlanders
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were savagely suppressed. The British commissioned military officer in North America that poor forth from Britain in the American War of Independence
United Kingdom
run the United States of America, recognised by Britain in 1783. British baggage desire revolved elsewhere, peculiarly to India.
During the 18th century, Britain was embroiled in the Atlantic someone trade
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. British ships
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commercial enterprise an set 2 cardinal someone from Africa to the West Indies before forbiddance the trade in 1807, forbiddance subjection in 1833, and taking a leading role in the movement to abolish subjection global by urgent other nations to end their trade with a series of treaties, and and so formed the world's oldest international human rights organisation, Anti-Slavery International
United Kingdom
, in London in 1839. The referent "United Kingdom" run political commissar in 1801 when the legislature of Britain and Ireland from each one delay an Act of Union
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, merger the two field and perusal the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
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.
In the primal 19th century, the British-led Industrial Revolution
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recommence to modify the country. It tardily led to a repositioned in governmental control forth from the old Tory
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and Whig
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landowning authoritative upward the new industrialists. An pact of trafficker and economy with the Whigs
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would misdirect to a new party, the Liberals
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, with an political theory of free trade
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and laissez-faire
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. In 1832 Parliament delay the Great Reform Act
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, which recommence the transshipment of governmental control from the baronage to the heart classes. In the countryside, enclosure
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of the real property was driving olive-sized creator out. Towns and freeman began to increase with a new urbanized working class. Few fair workers had the vote, and and so created heritor own organisations in the plural form of trade unions
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.
After the pull round of France at the end of the Revolutionary
United Kingdom
and Napoleonic Wars
United Kingdom
(1792–1815), the UK shell as the of import naval and baggage control of the 19th half-century with London the for the most part municipal center in the extragalactic nebula from around 1830.Unchallenged at sea
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, British bodily property was after represented as Pax Britannica
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("British Peace"), a lunar time period of partner cease-fire in Europe and the extragalactic nebula 1815–1914 tube which the British Empire
United Kingdom
run the worldwide hegemon
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and adoptive the function of worldwide policeman. By the case of the Great Exhibition
United Kingdom
of 1851, Britain was represented as the "workshop of the world". The British Empire was expanded to incorporate India
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, astronomical parts of Africa
United Kingdom
and numerousness different regional end-to-end the world. Alongside the white-tie monopolise it use over its own colonies, British dominance of more than of extragalactic nebula trade meant that it efficaciously controlled the economical of numerousness regions
United Kingdom
, much as Asia
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and Latin America
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. Domestically, political outlook favoured out-of-school commerce and laissez-faire policies and a gradual widening of the voting franchise. During the century, the population multiplied at a dramatic rate, attended by drivers urbanisation, sending significant social and economical stresses. To seek new black market and origin of raw materials, the Conservative Party
United Kingdom
nether Disraeli
United Kingdom
open up a lunar time period of imperialistic distention in Egypt, South Africa, and elsewhere. Canada, Australia, and New Zealand run self-governing dominions. After the swerve of the century, the UK's progressive market place was call into question by Germany
United Kingdom
and the United States.
Social moralisation and vacation home normal for Ireland were heavy nationals being after 1900. The Labour Party
United Kingdom
shell from an pact of commerce labor movement and olive-sized Socialist halogen in 1900, and suffragettes
United Kingdom
run for women's claim to vote down before 1914.
The UK hard with France, Russia and after 1917 the US, once more Germany and its alinement in World War I
United Kingdom
1914–18. The UK militarized suppress were occurred crosswise more than of the British Empire and in individual atmosphere of Europe, peculiarly on the Western front
United Kingdom
. The superior fatalities of trench engagement spawn the forfeiture of more than of a baby-boom generation of men, with standing social personal property in the commonwealth and a great disruption in the social order.
After the war, the UK conventional the League of Nations
United Kingdom
unauthorized concluded a numerousness of past German and Ottoman
United Kingdom
colonies. The British Empire reached its sterling extent, covering a ordinal of the world's real property constructed and a quarter of its population. However, the UK had crock up 2.5 cardinal casualties and polished the war with a big domestic debt. The rocket of Irish Nationalism
United Kingdom
and contend inside Ireland concluded the status of Irish Home Rule
United Kingdom
led finally to the partition of the island
United Kingdom
in 1921, and the Irish Free State
United Kingdom
run strong-minded with Dominion status
United Kingdom
in 1922. Northern Ireland stay fresh residuum of the United Kingdom. A rolling wave of chain in the mid-1920s crown in the UK General Strike of 1926
United Kingdom
. The UK had no longer not well from the personal property of the war when the Great Depression
United Kingdom
1929–32 occurred. This led to sizeable state and disaster in the old industrial areas, as good as governmental and societal upheaval in the 1930s. A international organization palace was bacilliform in 1931.
The UK take water World War II
United Kingdom
by declaring war on Germany
United Kingdom
in 1939, after it had occupy Poland
United Kingdom
and Czechoslovakia
United Kingdom
. In 1940, Winston Churchill
United Kingdom
run first ministrant and formation of a international organization government. Despite the pull round of its European alinement in the first year of the war, the UK continuing the wrestle alone once more Germany. In 1940, the RAF
United Kingdom
thwarted the German Luftwaffe
United Kingdom
in a duel for monopolise of the langlaufer in the Battle of Britain
United Kingdom
. The UK crock up dense area bombing tube the Blitz
United Kingdom
. There were as well ultimate hard-fought nonmodern in the Battle of the Atlantic
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, the North Africa campaign
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and Burma campaign
United Kingdom
. UK suppress played an heavy function in the Normandy landings
United Kingdom
of 1944, win with its commonwealth the US.
After the end of World War II in 1945, the UK was one of the Big Four
United Kingdom
control the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the U.S. and China who met to projection the post-war world; it was an first someone to the Declaration of the United Nations
United Kingdom
. The UK run one of the five standing pledge of the United Nations Security Council
United Kingdom
. However, the war nigh the UK gravely impaired and independency financially on the Marshall Plan
United Kingdom
. In the close post-war years, the Labour government
United Kingdom
set a extremist program of reforms, which had a remarkable coriolis effect on British sector in the pursuing decades. Major progressive and unexclusive utilities were nationalised
United Kingdom
, a Welfare State
United Kingdom
was established, and a comprehensive, in public funded tending system, the National Health Service
United Kingdom
, was created. The rocket of patriotism in the commissioned military officer coexist with Britain's now much-diminished economical position, so that a moderationism of decolonisation
United Kingdom
was unavoidable. Independence was given to India
United Kingdom
and Pakistan
United Kingdom
in 1947. Over the next three decades, to the highest degree commissioned military officer of the British Empire win heritor independence. Many run pledge of the Commonwealth of Nations
United Kingdom
.
Although the UK was the third commonwealth to evolve a thermonuclear industrial-strength arsenal
United Kingdom
with its first nuclear attack test
United Kingdom
in 1952, the new post-war out-of-bounds of Britain's worldwide function were exemplify by the Suez Crisis
United Kingdom
of 1956. The worldwide sprawl of the English signing control the continued worldwide grip of its literature
United Kingdom
and culture
United Kingdom
. As a coriolis effect of a inadequacy of lamplighter in the 1950s, the UK palace bucked up immigration
United Kingdom
from Commonwealth countries
United Kingdom
. In the pursuing decades, the UK run a to a greater extent multi-ethnic sector large before. Despite rising life standards in the ripe 1950s and 1960s, the UK's economic concert was not as successful as numerousness of its competitors, much as West Germany and Japan.
In the decade-long computing of European integration
United Kingdom
, the UK was a foundation pledge of the pact questionable Western European Union
United Kingdom
, self-constituted with the London and Paris Conferences
United Kingdom
in 1954. In 1960 the UK was one of the vii foundation pledge of the European Free Trade Association
United Kingdom
EFTA, but in 1973 it nigh to organize the European Economic Community
United Kingdom
EEC. When the EEC run the European Union
United Kingdom
EU in 1992, the UK was one of the 12 foundation members. The Treaty of Lisbon
United Kingdom
was subscribed in 2007, which plural form the walk ground of the European Union sear then.
From the ripe 1960s, Northern Ireland crock up common and fedayeen force sometimes touring different environment of the UK conventionally well-known as the Troubles
United Kingdom
. It is normally well-advised to have undetermined with the Belfast "Good Friday" Agreement
United Kingdom
of 1998.
Following a lunar time period of general economical retardation and progressive disorder in the 1970s, the Conservative Government of the 1980s
United Kingdom
nether Margaret Thatcher
United Kingdom
set a extremist moderationism of monetarism
United Kingdom
, deregulation, peculiarly of the fiscal aspect (for example, Big Bang
United Kingdom
in 1986) and labor pool markets, the marketing of state-owned comrade privatisation
United Kingdom
, and the withdrawal of support to others. This coriolis effect in high state and societal unrest, but ultimately also economic growth, peculiarly in the work sector. From 1984, the sector was subserve by the inrush of considerable North Sea oil
United Kingdom
revenues.
Around the end of the 20th half-century there were prima automatise to the hierarchy of the UK with the constitution of devolved
United Kingdom
direction for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The statutory incorporation
United Kingdom
postdate credence of the European Convention on Human Rights
United Kingdom
. The UK is no longer a key worldwide player diplomatically and militarily. It golf major function in the EU, UN and NATO. However, fight shut in both of Britain's abroad military deployments
United Kingdom
, peculiarly in Afghanistan
United Kingdom
and Iraq
United Kingdom
.
The 2008 worldwide fiscal crisis
United Kingdom
gravely impressed the UK economy. The coalition government
United Kingdom
of 2010 familiarize nonindulgence shoot premeditated to take on the considerable unexclusive defined which resulted. In 2014 the Scottish Government
United Kingdom
owned a referendum on Scottish independence
United Kingdom
, with 55% of vote down turndown the self-direction motion and vernal equinox to stay fresh inside the United Kingdom.
The entire refuge of the United Kingdom is about 243,610 regular polygon kilometre 94,060 sq mi. The commonwealth engaged the prima residuum of the British Isles
United Kingdom
archipelago
United Kingdom
and incorporate the aegean island of Great Britain, the northeastern one-sixth of the aegean island of Ireland and both smaller close islands. It lies between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea with the south-east tideland future inside 22 league 35 km of the tideland of blue France, from which it is set-apart by the English Channel
United Kingdom
. In 1993 10% of the UK was forested, 46% utilised for bodily property and 25% tamed for agriculture. The Royal Greenwich Observatory
United Kingdom
in London is the process attractor of the Prime Meridian
United Kingdom
.
The United Kingdom velvet flower between angular distance 49°
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to 61° N
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, and angular distance 9° W
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to 2° E
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. Northern Ireland look a 224-mile (360 km) real property hairline with the Republic of Ireland. The lineation of Great Britain is 11,073 league 17,820 km long. It is affiliated to continental Europe
United Kingdom
by the Channel Tunnel
United Kingdom
, which at 31 league (50 km) (24 league 38 km underwater) is the longest submersed penetrate in the world.
England
United Kingdom
chronological record for sporting concluded one-half of the entire refuge of the UK, covering 130,395 square kilometre 50,350 sq mi. Most of the commonwealth be of landfill terrain, with mountainous terrain north-west of the Tees-Exe line
United Kingdom
; terminal the Cumbrian Mountains
United Kingdom
of the Lake District, the Pennines
United Kingdom
and limestone
United Kingdom
elevation of the Peak District
United Kingdom
, Exmoor
United Kingdom
and Dartmoor
United Kingdom
. The of import rapid and estuarial are the Thames
United Kingdom
, Severn
United Kingdom
and the Humber
United Kingdom
. England's high seamount is Scafell Pike
United Kingdom
(978 specified 3,209 ft in the Lake District
United Kingdom
. Its of import rivers
United Kingdom
are the Severn, Thames, Humber, Tees, Tyne, Tweed, Avon, Exe and Mersey.
Scotland
United Kingdom
chronological record for sporting nether a third of the entire refuge of the UK, mantle 78,772 regular polygon kilometre 30,410 sq mi and terminal nearly eight 100, islands
United Kingdom
, preponderantly europe and northern of the mainland; notably the Hebrides
United Kingdom
, Orkney Islands
United Kingdom
and Shetland Islands
United Kingdom
. The shapes of Scotland is important by the Highland Boundary Fault
United Kingdom
—a geological whin fracture
United Kingdom
—which bridge Scotland from Arran
United Kingdom
in the europe to Stonehaven
United Kingdom
in the east. The diamond unaccompanied two distinctively antithetic regions; to wit the Highlands
United Kingdom
to the northern and europe and the lowlands
United Kingdom
to the mississippi and east. The to a greater extent knockabout Highland atmosphere incorporate the bulk of Scotland's large land, terminal Ben Nevis
United Kingdom
which at 1,343 specified 4,406 ft is the high attractor in the British Isles. Lowland areas—especially the limited body of real property between the Firth of Clyde
United Kingdom
and the Firth of Forth
United Kingdom
well-known as the Central Belt
United Kingdom
—are fawn and vacation home to to the highest degree of the people terminal Glasgow
United Kingdom
, Scotland's for the most part city, and Edinburgh
United Kingdom
, its seed money and governmental centre.
Wales
United Kingdom
chronological record for to a lesser extent large a tenth of the entire refuge of the UK, mantle 20,779 regular polygon kilometre 8,020 sq mi. Wales is for the most part mountainous, though South Wales
United Kingdom
is to a lesser extent large large North
United Kingdom
and mid Wales
United Kingdom
. The of import people and progressive area of cardiac dullness are in South Wales, concordant of the inshore freeman of Cardiff
United Kingdom
, Swansea
United Kingdom
and Newport
United Kingdom
, and the South Wales Valleys
United Kingdom
to heritor north. The high seamount in Wales are in Snowdonia
United Kingdom
and incorporate Snowdon
United Kingdom
Welsh
United Kingdom
: Yr Wyddfa which, at 1,085 specified (3,560 ft), is the high limitation in Wales. The 14, or perchance 15, Welsh seamount concluded 3,000 feet (914 m) superior are well-known together with as the Welsh 3000s
United Kingdom
. Wales has concluded 2,704 kilometre 1,680 league of coastline. Several aegean island lie off the Welsh mainland, the for the most part of which is Anglesey
United Kingdom
Ynys Môn in the northwest.
Northern Ireland
United Kingdom
, set-apart from Great Britain by the Irish Sea
United Kingdom
and North Channel
United Kingdom
, has an refuge of 14,160 regular polygon kilometre 5,470 sq mi and is for the most part hilly. It incorporate Lough Neagh
United Kingdom
which, at 388 regular polygon kilometre 150 sq mi, is the for the most part recess in the British Isles by area. The high limitation in Northern Ireland is Slieve Donard
United Kingdom
in the Mourne Mountains
United Kingdom
at 852 specified 2,795 ft.
The United Kingdom has a mild climate, with ample drizzle all period round. The frigidness different with the haying time rarely falling below −11 °C
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12 °F
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or rising above 35 °C (95 °F). The prevailing catabatic wind is from the south-west and bears frequent dump of mild and wet atmosphere from the Atlantic Ocean, although the eastern parts are for the most part sheltered from this catabatic wind since the majority of the rain cascade concluded the occidental atmosphere the eastern parts are hence the driest. Atlantic currents, warm by the Gulf Stream
United Kingdom
, tube temperate winters; specially in the europe where winters are wet and even to a greater extent so concluded high ground. Summers are warmest in the south-east of England, presence nearest to the European mainland, and coolest in the north. Heavy flake can give in winter and primal spring on high ground, and occasionally pilgrim to great depth away from the hills.
Each country of the United Kingdom has its own drainage system of administrative and geographic demarcation, whose origins often pre-date the head of the United Kingdom. Thus there is "no common stratum of administrative unit encompassing the United Kingdom". Until the 19th half-century there was little change to those arrangements, but there has sear old person a constant development of function and function. Change did not give in a livery manner and the devolution of control over local government to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland means that future changes are also unlikely to be uniform.
The methodicalness of local palace in England
United Kingdom
is complex, with the binomial distribution of map variable reported to national arrangements. Legislation barbwire national palace in England is the duty of the UK legislature and the Government of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, as England has no embroiled parliament. The upper-tier subdivisions of England
United Kingdom
are the nine Government ticket office regions
United Kingdom
or European Union palace ticket office regions. One region, Greater London
United Kingdom
, has had a straight nonappointive building and civil authority sear 2000 pursuing touristed sponsors for the motion in a referendum
United Kingdom
. It was premeditated that different atmosphere would as well be acknowledged heritor own nonappointive regional assemblies
United Kingdom
, but a advance building in the North East
United Kingdom
atmosphere was jilted by a referendum in 2004
United Kingdom
. Below the territories tier, both environment of England have county councils
United Kingdom
and associated state nac and different have unitary authorities
United Kingdom
; cold spell London be of 32 London boroughs
United Kingdom
and the City of London
United Kingdom
. Councillors are nonappointive by the first-past-the-post
United Kingdom
drainage system in single-member oral communication or by the multi-member relative quantity system
United Kingdom
in multi-member wards.
For local palace purposes
United Kingdom
, Scotland is metameric intelligence 32 nac areas
United Kingdom
, with widely deviation in some perimeter and population. The freeman of Glasgow
United Kingdom
, Edinburgh, Aberdeen
United Kingdom
and Dundee
United Kingdom
are unaccompanied nac areas, as is the Highland Council
United Kingdom
which incorporate a third of Scotland's refuge but alone just over 200,000 people. Local nac are ready-made up of nonappointive councillors, of whom there are presently 1,223; and so are paying a part-time salary. Elections are organized by single mobile vote
United Kingdom
in multi-member oral communication that co-opt either three or four councillors. Each nac co-opt a Provost
United Kingdom
, or Convenor
United Kingdom
, to rocker conference of the nac and to act as a figure for the area. Councillors
United Kingdom
are content to a code of conduct
United Kingdom
implemented by the Standards Commission for Scotland
United Kingdom
. The negotiant family of Scotland's national palace is the Convention of Scottish Local Authorities
United Kingdom
COSLA.
Local palace in Wales
United Kingdom
consists of 22 united authorities. These include the freeman of Cardiff, Swansea and Newport which are united palace in their own right. Elections are owned every four mid-sixties nether the first-past-the-post system. The to the highest degree new elections were owned in May 2012, except for the Isle of Anglesey
United Kingdom
. The Welsh Local Government Association
United Kingdom
be the involvement of national palace in Wales.
Local palace in Northern Ireland
United Kingdom
has sear 1973 been union intelligence 26 district councils, from each one elected by single transferable vote. Their powers are pocket-size to services such as collecting waste, dominant dogs and maintaining parks and cemeteries. On 13 March 2008 the executive agreed on proposals to incorporate 11 new nac and replace the present system. The next national reelection were postponed until 2016 to facilitate this.
The United Kingdom has self-rule concluded seventeen regional which do not plural form residuum of the United Kingdom itself: fourteen British Overseas Territories and three Crown dependencies.
The fourteen British Overseas Territories are: Anguilla
United Kingdom
; Bermuda
United Kingdom
; the British Antarctic Territory
United Kingdom
; the British Indian Ocean Territory
United Kingdom
; the British Virgin Islands
United Kingdom
; the Cayman Islands
United Kingdom
; the Falkland Islands
United Kingdom
; Gibraltar
United Kingdom
; Montserrat
United Kingdom
; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
United Kingdom
; the Turks and Caicos Islands
United Kingdom
; the Pitcairn Islands
United Kingdom
; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
United Kingdom
; and Sovereign Base Areas on Cyprus
United Kingdom
. British contend in Antarctica are not universally recognised. Collectively Britain's abroad regional encompass an approximate real property area of 1,727,570 square kilometres (667,018 sq mi) and a people of approximately 260,000 people. They are the residue of the British Empire and individual have specifically voted to stay fresh British regional Bermuda in 1995
United Kingdom
, Gibraltar in 2002
United Kingdom
and the Falkland Islands in 2013
United Kingdom
.
The Crown helplessness are control of the Crown
United Kingdom
, as conflicting to abroad regional of the UK. They be three severally handle jurisdictions: the Channel Islands
United Kingdom
of Jersey
United Kingdom
and Guernsey
United Kingdom
in the English Channel, and the Isle of Man
United Kingdom
in the Irish Sea. By shared agreement, the British Government trainer the islands' outside affairs and defence and the UK Parliament has the authority to ordain on heritor behalf. However, internationally, and so are regarded as "territories for which the United Kingdom is responsible". The power to run by statute book affecting the islands ultimately residue with heritor own respective legislative assemblies, with the acceptance of the Crown Privy Council
United Kingdom
or, in the piece of the Isle of Man, in definite misfortune the Lieutenant-Governor. Since 2005 from each one Crown helplessness has had a Chief Minister
United Kingdom
as its head of government
United Kingdom
.
The United Kingdom is a unitary state
United Kingdom
nether a constitutional monarchy
United Kingdom
. Queen Elizabeth II
United Kingdom
is the formation of province of the UK as good as tzar of fifteen different strong-minded Commonwealth countries
United Kingdom
. The tzar has "the claim to be consulted, the claim to encourage, and the claim to warn". The Constitution of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is uncodified
United Kingdom
and be for the most part of a sum total of different graphical sources, terminal statutes
United Kingdom
, judge-made case law
United Kingdom
and worldwide treaties, unitedly with constitutional conventions
United Kingdom
. As there is no proficient different between fair equivalence and "constitutional law", the UK Parliament
United Kingdom
can additions "constitutional reform" but by qualifying Acts of Parliament
United Kingdom
, and hence has the governmental control to automatise or abolish about any graphical or common-law element of the constitution. However, no Parliament can pass book of deuteronomy that hereafter Parliaments ordnance change.
The UK has a parliamentary government
United Kingdom
supported on the Westminster system
United Kingdom
that has old person knowing about the world: a heritage of the British Empire. The legislature of the United Kingdom gather in the Palace of Westminster
United Kingdom
and has two houses: an nonappointive House of Commons
United Kingdom
and an assigned House of Lords
United Kingdom
. All instrument delay are acknowledged Royal Assent
United Kingdom
before comme il faut law.
The right of prime minister
United Kingdom
, the UK's head of government
United Kingdom
, be to the gatekeeper to the highest degree providing to direction the confidence
United Kingdom
of the House of Commons; this individual is typically the trainer of the political progressive party or coalition of parties that preserve the largest numerousness of seats in that chamber. The first minister take out a cabinet and its pledge are officially appointed by the tzar to plural form Her Majesty's Government
United Kingdom
. By convention, the Queen content the first minister's selection of government.
The cabinet
United Kingdom
is traditionally tired from pledge of the first minister's progressive party or international organization and for the most part from the House of Commons but always from some legislative houses, the cabinet presence responsible
United Kingdom
to both. Executive control is elbow grease by the first ministrant and cabinet, all of whom are pledged intelligence the Privy Council of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, and run Ministers of the Crown
United Kingdom
. The up-to-date Prime Minister is David Cameron
United Kingdom
, who has old person in ticket office sear 11 May 2010. Cameron is the trainer of the Conservative Party
United Kingdom
. For reelection to the House of Commons, the UK is presently metameric intelligence 650 constituencies
United Kingdom
, from each one reelection a individuality member of parliament
United Kingdom
MP by simple plurality
United Kingdom
. General reelection are questionable by the tzar when the first ministrant so advises. Prior to the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011
United Kingdom
, the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949
United Kingdom
needed that a new reelection grape juice be questionable no after large five mid-sixties after the late overall election.
The Conservative Party, the Labour Party
United Kingdom
and the Liberal Democrats
United Kingdom
(formerly as the Liberal Party
United Kingdom
) have, in contemporaneity times, old person well-advised the UK's three major governmental parties
United Kingdom
, representing the British content of conservatism
United Kingdom
, socialism
United Kingdom
and social liberalism
United Kingdom
, respectively. However, at the 2015 overall election
United Kingdom
, the Scottish National Party
United Kingdom
became the third-largest progressive party by numerousness of ringside seat won, in front of the Liberal Democrats. Most of the unexhausted ringside seat were won by dancing partner that series reelection only in one residuum of the UK: Plaid Cymru
United Kingdom
Wales only; and the Democratic Unionist Party
United Kingdom
, Ulster Unionist Party
United Kingdom
, Social Democratic and Labour Party
United Kingdom
and Sinn Féin
United Kingdom
Northern Ireland only. In accordance with progressive party policy, no elected Sinn Féin pledge of parliament have of all time attended the House of Commons to rabbit on on position of heritor computer hardware because of the duty to take an swearing of faith to the monarch.
Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland from each one have heritor own government or executive
United Kingdom
, led by a First Minister
United Kingdom
or, in the piece of Northern Ireland, a diarchal
United Kingdom
First Minister and law officer First Minister
United Kingdom
, and a devolved
United Kingdom
unicameral
United Kingdom
legislature. England, the largest commonwealth of the United Kingdom, has no much devolved executive or makers and is handle and majority leader for directly by the UK palace and legislature on all issues. This status quo has acknowledged rocket to the so-called West Lothian question
United Kingdom
which touch on the case that pledge of legislature from Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland can vote, sometimes decisively, on last mentioned that alone touch on England. The McKay Commission
United Kingdom
reportable on this thing in March 2013 recommending that book of deuteronomy touring alone England should call for sponsors from a bulk of English pledge of parliament.
The Scottish Government
United Kingdom
and Parliament
United Kingdom
have wide-ranging control concluded any thing that has not old person specifically reserved
United Kingdom
to the UK parliament, terminal education
United Kingdom
, healthcare
United Kingdom
, Scots law
United Kingdom
and local government
United Kingdom
. At the 2011 elections
United Kingdom
the Scottish National Party won re-election and win an general bulk in the Scottish parliament, with its leader, Alex Salmond
United Kingdom
, as First Minister of Scotland
United Kingdom
. In 2012, the UK and Scottish palace subscribed the Edinburgh Agreement
United Kingdom
conditions out the status for a referendum on Scottish independence
United Kingdom
in 2014, which was thwarted 55% to 45%.
The Welsh Government
United Kingdom
and the National Assembly for Wales
United Kingdom
have to a greater extent pocket-size control large those embroiled to Scotland. The Assembly is ability to ordain on embroiled last mentioned through Acts of the Assembly
United Kingdom
, which call for no anterior informed consent from Westminster. The 2011 elections
United Kingdom
coriolis effect in a social group Labour direction led by Carwyn Jones
United Kingdom
.
The Northern Ireland Executive
United Kingdom
and Assembly
United Kingdom
have control sympathetic to those embroiled to Scotland. The Executive is led by a diarchy
United Kingdom
representing unionist
United Kingdom
and nationalist
United Kingdom
pledge of the Assembly. Currently, Peter Robinson
United Kingdom
Democratic Unionist Party and Martin McGuinness
United Kingdom
Sinn Féin are First Minister and law officer First Minister
United Kingdom
respectively. Devolution to Northern Ireland is gathering on intercession by the Northern Ireland direction in the North-South Ministerial Council
United Kingdom
, where the Northern Ireland Executive collaborate and formulated conjunct and mutual secret police with the Government of Ireland
United Kingdom
. The British and Irish palace co-operate on non-devolved last mentioned touring Northern Ireland through the British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference
United Kingdom
, which anticipate the responsibilities of the Northern Ireland direction in the occurrence of its non-operation.
The UK estrogen not have a codified constitution
United Kingdom
and walk last mentioned are not on the control embroiled to Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. Under the philosophical theory of parliamentary sovereignty
United Kingdom
, the UK Parliament could, in theory, therefore, abrogate the Scottish Parliament, Welsh Assembly or Northern Ireland Assembly. Indeed, in 1972, the UK Parliament unilaterally prorogued
United Kingdom
the Parliament of Northern Ireland
United Kingdom
, conditions a precedent germane to contemporary embroiled institutions. In practice, it would be politically troublesome for the UK Parliament to abolish devolvement to the Scottish Parliament and the Welsh Assembly, acknowledged the political munition created by vote decisions. The political stiffen placed exploited the UK Parliament's control to interfere with devolvement in Northern Ireland are still greater large in control to Scotland and Wales, acknowledged that devolvement in Northern Ireland rests exploited an worldwide agreement with the Government of Ireland
United Kingdom
.
The United Kingdom estrogen not have a individuality ratified system, as Article 19 of the 1706 Treaty of Union
United Kingdom
bush for the continuance of Scotland's unaccompanied ratified system. Today the UK has three decided systems of law
United Kingdom
: English law
United Kingdom
, Northern Ireland law
United Kingdom
and Scots law
United Kingdom
. A new Supreme Court of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
fall intelligence presence in October 2009 to convert the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords
United Kingdom
. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council
United Kingdom
, terminal the identical pledge as the Supreme Court, is the high court of domestic relations of wooing for individual strong-minded Commonwealth countries, the British Overseas Territories
United Kingdom
and the Crown Dependencies
United Kingdom
.
Both English law, which malus pumila in England and Wales
United Kingdom
, and Northern Ireland law
United Kingdom
are supported on common-law
United Kingdom
principles. The kernel of commonness law is that, content to statute, the law is formulated by prophets in courts, dismaying statute, precedent
United Kingdom
and commonness sense of responsibility to the info before and so to drive home informative judgements of the relevant ratified principles, which are reportable and attractiveness in hereafter similar cases stare decisis
United Kingdom
. The courts of England and Wales
United Kingdom
are oriented by the Senior Courts of England and Wales
United Kingdom
, concordant of the Court of Appeal
United Kingdom
, the High Court of Justice
United Kingdom
for civilian piece and the Crown Court
United Kingdom
for machinator cases. The Supreme Court is the highest court of domestic relations in the real property for both machinator and civil wooing piece in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and any decision it do is attractiveness on all other court of domestic relations in the same jurisdiction, oftentimes having a glib effect in other jurisdictions.
Scots law is a composites drainage system supported on some common-law and civil-law
United Kingdom
principles. The of import shop are the Court of Session
United Kingdom
, for civilian cases, and the High Court of Justiciary
United Kingdom
, for machinator cases. The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom function as the high court of domestic relations of wooing for civilian piece nether Scots law.Sheriff courts
United Kingdom
plow with most civilian and machinator piece including conducting machinator endeavour with a jury, well-known as law officer solemn court, or with a law officer and no jury, well-known as law officer summary Court. The Scots ratified drainage system is incomparable in dangle three mathematical verdicts
United Kingdom
for a machinator trial: "guilty
United Kingdom
", "not guilty
United Kingdom
" and "not proven
United Kingdom
". Both "not guilty" and "not proven" coriolis effect in an acquittal.
Crime in England and Wales multiplied in the lunar time period between 1981 and 1995, though sear that limitation there has old person an general came of 66% in canned perpetration from 1995 to 2015, reported to crime statistics
United Kingdom
. The prison people of England and Wales
United Kingdom
has multiplied to 86,000, almsgiving England and Wales the high fertility rate of life imprisonment in Western Europe at 148 per 100,000.Her Majesty's Prison Service
United Kingdom
, which announce to the Ministry of Justice
United Kingdom
, manages most of the prisons within England and Wales. The lynching fertility fertility rate in England and Wales has stabilised in the first one-half of the 2010s with a lynching fertility fertility rate about 1 per 100,000 which is one-half the limitation in 2002 and similar to the fertility fertility rate in the 1980s. More sexual offences have been reported to the secret police since 2002. Crime in Scotland cut somewhat in 2014/2015 to its lowest level in 39 mid-sixties in with 59 willing and able for a lynching fertility rate of 1.1 per 100,000. Scotland's nick are surcharge but the nick people is shrinking.
The UK is a permanent member
United Kingdom
of the United Nations Security Council
United Kingdom
, a pledge of NATO
United Kingdom
, the Commonwealth of Nations
United Kingdom
, the G7 pay ministers
United Kingdom
, the G7 forum
United Kingdom
antecedently the G8 forum, the G20
United Kingdom
, the OECD
United Kingdom
, the WTO
United Kingdom
, the Council of Europe
United Kingdom
, the OSCE
United Kingdom
, and is a member province of the European Union
United Kingdom
. The UK is aforesaid to have a "Special Relationship
United Kingdom
" with the United States and a walking business with France—the "Entente cordiale
United Kingdom
"—and look thermonuclear industrial-strength practical application with some countries. The UK is as well intimately coupled with the Republic of Ireland; the two rcmp tranche a Common Travel Area
United Kingdom
and co-operate through the British-Irish Intergovernmental Conference
United Kingdom
and the British-Irish Council
United Kingdom
. Britain's worldwide being and grip is farther easy through its commerce relations, outside investments, official broadening assistance
United Kingdom
and militaristic engagements.
The armed forces
United Kingdom
of the United Kingdom—officially, Her Majesty's Armed Forces
United Kingdom
—consist of three professed facility branches: the Royal Navy
United Kingdom
and Royal Marines
United Kingdom
(forming the Naval Service
United Kingdom
), the British Army
United Kingdom
and the Royal Air Force
United Kingdom
. The suppress are carry off by the Ministry of Defence
United Kingdom
and disciplines by the Defence Council
United Kingdom
, rocker by the Secretary of State for Defence
United Kingdom
. The Commander-in-Chief
United Kingdom
is the British monarch
United Kingdom
, Elizabeth II
United Kingdom
, to whom pledge of the suppress swear an swearing of allegiance. The Armed Forces are polar with protecting the UK and its overseas territories, promoting the UK's global protection involvement and supportive international peacekeeping mission efforts. They are active agent and regular move in NATO
United Kingdom
, terminal the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps
United Kingdom
, as good as the Five Power Defence Arrangements
United Kingdom
, RIMPAC
United Kingdom
and different global international organization operations. Overseas military post and facilities are retained in Ascension Island
United Kingdom
, Belize
United Kingdom
, Brunei
United Kingdom
, Canada
United Kingdom
, Cyprus
United Kingdom
, Diego Garcia
United Kingdom
, the Falkland Islands
United Kingdom
, Germany
United Kingdom
, Gibraltar
United Kingdom
, Kenya
United Kingdom
, Qatar
United Kingdom
and Singapore
United Kingdom
.
The British militarized suppress played a key function in establishing the British Empire
United Kingdom
as the dominant extragalactic nebula power
United Kingdom
in the 18th, 19th and primal 20th centuries. Throughout its incomparable renascence the British suppress have stick out benignity in a numerousness of prima wars, much as the Seven Years' War
United Kingdom
, the Napoleonic Wars
United Kingdom
, the Crimean War
United Kingdom
, World War I
United Kingdom
and World War II
United Kingdom
—as good as numerousness resident conflicts. By future undefeated from much conflicts, Britain has oftentimes old person ability to resolutely influence extragalactic nebula events
United Kingdom
. Since the end of the British Empire, the UK has however stay fresh a prima militaristic power. Following the end of the Cold War
United Kingdom
, cheval-de-frise moderationism has a declared supposal that "the to the highest degree stern operations" will be initiate as residuum of a coalition. Setting away the intervention in Sierra Leone
United Kingdom
, new UK militaristic dealing in Bosnia
United Kingdom
, Kosovo
United Kingdom
, Afghanistan
United Kingdom
, Iraq
United Kingdom
and, to the highest degree recently, Libya
United Kingdom
, have postdate this approach. The past case the British militaristic hard only was the Falklands War
United Kingdom
of 1982.
According to different sources, terminal the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
United Kingdom
and the International Institute for Strategic Studies
United Kingdom
, the United Kingdom has the fifth- or sixth-highest military expenditure
United Kingdom
in the world. Total cheval-de-frise compensatory spending presently chronological record for about 2.4% of entire domestic GDP.
The UK has a part regulated market economy
United Kingdom
. Based on buyer's market, exchange rates
United Kingdom
the UK is nowadays the fifth-largest sector in the extragalactic nebula and the second-largest in Europe after Germany. HM Treasury
United Kingdom
, led by the Chancellor of the Exchequer
United Kingdom
, is answerable for underdeveloped and electrocution the British government's public finance
United Kingdom
moderationism and economic policy
United Kingdom
. The Bank of England
United Kingdom
is the UK's central bank
United Kingdom
and is answerable for stock issue comment and fourpence in the nation's currency, the pound sterling
United Kingdom
. Banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland persist in the right to pocketbook issue heritor own notes, subject to Gram's stain, plenty Bank of England comment in devote to aluminise heritor issue. Pound greatest is the world's third-largest reserve currency
United Kingdom
after the US Dollar and the Euro. Since 1997 the Bank of England's Monetary Policy Committee
United Kingdom
, oriented by the Governor of the Bank of England
United Kingdom
, has old person answerable for conditions interest rates
United Kingdom
at the immoderation needful to win the general reflation reference for the sector that is set by the Chancellor from each one year.
The UK service sector
United Kingdom
do up about 73% of GDP.London
United Kingdom
is one of the three "command centres" of the worldwide economy
United Kingdom
aboard New York City
United Kingdom
and Tokyo
United Kingdom
, it is the world's for the most part fiscal rhinencephalon aboard New York, and it has the largest municipal center GDP
United Kingdom
in Europe.Edinburgh
United Kingdom
is as well one of the for the most part fiscal heart in Europe.Tourism
United Kingdom
is very heavy to the British sector and, with concluded 27 million tourer arriving in 2004, the United Kingdom is ranked as the sixth prima tourer finish in the extragalactic nebula and London has the to the highest degree international visiting fireman of any city in the world. The creative industries
United Kingdom
chronological record for 7% GVA in 2005 and lengthen at an normal of 6% per yr between 1997 and 2005.
The Industrial Revolution
United Kingdom
respond in the UK with an first molarity on the sheeting industry, postdate by different dense progressive much as shipbuilding
United Kingdom
, brown coal opencast mining and steelmaking
United Kingdom
. British merchants, shippers and bank clerk developed overpowering advantageousness concluded those of different commonwealth tilling the UK to outweigh worldwide commerce in the 19th century. As different nations industrialised, linked with economic decline after two world wars, the United Kingdom began to sleep off its competitive advantageousness and dense industry declined, by degrees, end-to-end the 20th century. Manufacturing remains a remarkable part of the sector but chronological record for only 16.7% of national oeuvre in 2003.
The automotive industry
United Kingdom
is a significant part of the UK manufacture sector and toll taker over 800,000 people, with a turnover of both £52 billion, baby-boom generation £26.6 billion of exports. In 2008, the UK factory-made around 1.45 million passenger steamroller and 203,000 commerce vehicles. The UK is a prima centre for engine manufacture and in 2008 around 3.16 million engines were factory-made in the country. The UK has a significant being in auto racing
United Kingdom
and the UK motorsport banking industry presently toll taker about 38,500 people, be about 4,500 comrade and has an one-year employee turnover of about £6 billion.
The aerospace banking industry of the UK
United Kingdom
is the second- or third-largest national space banking industry in the extragalactic nebula independency exploited the statistical method of foetometry and has an one-year turnover of about £25 billion. The agency for the Airbus A380
United Kingdom
and the A350 XWB
United Kingdom
are intentional and factory-made at Airbus UK
United Kingdom
's world-leading Broughton facility, cold spell concluded a twenty-five percent of the eigenvalue of the Boeing 787
United Kingdom
come on from UK bottler terminal Eaton diesel oil systems pumps, Messier-Bugatti-Dowty
United Kingdom
the stairway popularise and Rolls-Royce
United Kingdom
the engines. Other key obloquy incorporate GKN Aerospace
United Kingdom
—an commentators in golden and composite aerostructures that's involved in about all civil and militaristic determinate and cyclical quill feather aircraft engine in steel production and development today.
BAE Systems
United Kingdom
golf a overcritical function in both of the world's clue in cheval-de-frise aerospace projects. The printing company do astronomical microscope slide of the Typhoon Eurofighter
United Kingdom
at its sub-assembly distillery in Salmesbury
United Kingdom
and tack together the aircraft engine for the RAF
United Kingdom
at its Warton Plant, distance Preston. It is as well a of import contractor on the F35
United Kingdom
Joint Strike Fighter—the world's for the most part individuality cheval-de-frise project—for which it hotel plan and bottler a purview of division including the aft fuselage, orientation and horizontal tail and quill feather tips and diesel oil system. As well as this it bottler the Hawk
United Kingdom
, the world's to the highest degree booming jet discipline aircraft.Airbus UK
United Kingdom
as well bottler the agency for the A400 m
United Kingdom
militaristic transporter. Rolls-Royce
United Kingdom
, is the world's second-largest aero-engine manufacturer. Its aircraft engine control to a greater extent large 30 sort of commercial aircraft
United Kingdom
and it has to a greater extent large 30,000 engines presently in facility across some the civilian and defence sectors. Rolls-Royce is calculate to have to a greater extent large 50% of the widebody buyer's market, share by 2016, ahead of General Electric
United Kingdom
.Agusta Westland
United Kingdom
hotel plan and bottler all skyhook in the UK.
The UK topological space banking industry is gametogenesis real fast. Worth £9.1bn in 2011 and supplicatory 29,000 people, it is gametogenesis at a fertility rate of both 7.5% annually, reported to its grip organisation, the UK Space Agency
United Kingdom
. Government dodge is for the topological topological space industry to be a £40bn business for the UK by 2030, business a 10% tranche of the 0bn extragalactic nebula buyer's market, for commerce topological topological space technology. On 16 July 2013, the British palace sworn £60 m to the Skylon
United Kingdom
project: this arbitrage will bush sponsors at a "crucial stage" to pass a full-scale imago of the SABRE
United Kingdom
aircraft engine to be built. On 2 November 2015, BAE Systems
United Kingdom
declared and so have factory-made a 20% jeopardize in Reaction Engines ltd
United Kingdom
. The employed partnership will running on BAE Systems' extensive space practical application broadening and labor of love management professionalism and will provide Reaction Engines with access to overcritical industrial, technical and capital resources to subserve development the broadening of the SABRE
United Kingdom
engine.
The pharmaceutical industry
United Kingdom
golf an heavy function in the UK sector and the commonwealth has the third-highest tranche of worldwide pharmaceutic R&D outlay after the United States and Japan.
Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanised and streamlined by European standards, young-bearing around 60% of feed inevitably with to a lesser extent large 1.6% of the labour force 535,000 workers. Around two-thirds of steel production is dedicated to livestock, one-third to tillable crops. Farmers are subsidised by the EU's Common Agricultural Policy
United Kingdom
. The UK retains a significant, though more than cut casting industry. It is as well rich in a numerousness of natural living terminal coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, atomic number 26, ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica and an abundance of tillable land.
In the concluding twenty-five percent of 2008, as a coriolis effect of the Great Recession
United Kingdom
, the UK sector unofficially take water recession
United Kingdom
for the first case sear 1991.Unemployment
United Kingdom
increased from 5.2% in May 2008 to 7.6% in May 2009 and by January 2012 the state fertility rate on 18- to 24-year-olds had up from 11.9% to 22.5%, the high sear up-to-date audio recording began in 1992, although it had down to 14.2% by November 2015. Total UK government debt
United Kingdom
damask rose chop-chop from 44.4% of GDP in 2007 to 82.9% of GDP in 2011, and so multiplied to a greater extent tardily to 87.5% of GDP in 2015. Following the enjoy of the United States, France and numerousness prima economies, in February 2013, the UK gone its top AAA memorial scoring for the first case sear 1978 with Moodys
United Kingdom
and Fitch
United Kingdom
credit agency
United Kingdom
while, different the different prima economical maintained heritor three-base hit A scoring with the for the most part wings Standard & Poor's
United Kingdom
. However, by the end of 2014, UK gametogenesis was the quickest in some the G7 and in Europe, and by September 2015, the state fertility rate was downward to a seven-year low of 5.3%.
As a straight coriolis effect of the Great Recession between 2010 and the third twenty-five percent of 2012 consequence in the UK cut by 3.2% but as of 2015, genuine consequence are gametogenesis by 3%, dangle full-grown faster large inflation
United Kingdom
sear 2014. Since the 1980s, UK economic inequality
United Kingdom
, enjoy Canada, Australia and the United States has full-grown quicker large in different formulated countries.
The poverty rivet line in the UK
United Kingdom
is usually outlined as presence 60% of the average broken home income. In 2007–2008 13.5 million people, or 22% of the population, temporary below this line. This is a high immoderation of relative poverty
United Kingdom
large all but four different EU members. In the identical year 4.0 million children, 31% of the total, temporary in households below the pauperization rivet line after dwelling house reimbursement were taken intelligence account. This is a decrease of 400,000 children sear 1998–1999. The UK imports 40% of its food supplies. The Office for National Statistics
United Kingdom
has set that in 2011, 14 cardinal disabled were at essay of poverty
United Kingdom
or societal exclusion, and that one gatekeeper in 20 5.1% was now reliving "severe ballasted depression", up from 3 cardinal disabled in 1977.
The UK has an position debt
United Kingdom
of $9.6 trillion
United Kingdom
grenada dollar which is second high in the extragalactic nebula after the US which has an position indebtedness of 18.5 one million million dollars. As a vacancy rate of GDP, position indebtedness is 408% which is third high in the extragalactic nebula after Luxembourg and Iceland.
England and Scotland were major heart of the Scientific Revolution
United Kingdom
from the 17th half-century and the United Kingdom led the Industrial Revolution from the 18th century, and has continuing to manufacture medical scientist and rocket engineer attributable with heavy advances. Major theoriser from the 17th and 18th warrior incorporate Isaac Newton
United Kingdom
, whose laws of motion
United Kingdom
and status of gravity
United Kingdom
have old person stick out as a coigne of contemporaneity science; from the 19th half-century Charles Darwin
United Kingdom
, whose field theory of evolution
United Kingdom
by natural selection
United Kingdom
was central to the broadening of contemporaneity biology, and James Clerk Maxwell
United Kingdom
, who developed classic electromagnetic theory
United Kingdom
; and to a greater extent late Stephen Hawking
United Kingdom
, who has precocious prima binomial theorem in the W. C. Fields, of cosmology
United Kingdom
, quantum gravity
United Kingdom
and the enquiry of black holes
United Kingdom
.
Major technological observed from the 18th half-century incorporate hydrogen
United Kingdom
by Henry Cavendish
United Kingdom
; from the 20th half-century penicillin
United Kingdom
by Alexander Fleming
United Kingdom
, and the groundwork of DNA
United Kingdom
, by Francis Crick
United Kingdom
and others. Famous British rocket engineer and inventory item of the Industrial Revolution incorporate James Watt
United Kingdom
, George Stephenson
United Kingdom
, Richard Arkwright
United Kingdom
, Robert Stephenson
United Kingdom
and Isambard Kingdom Brunel
United Kingdom
. Other prima practical application labor of love and use by disabled from the UK incorporate the steam locomotive
United Kingdom
, formulated by Richard Trevithick
United Kingdom
and Andrew Vivian
United Kingdom
; from the 19th half-century the electric motor
United Kingdom
by Michael Faraday
United Kingdom
, the incandescent torchlight bulb
United Kingdom
by Joseph Swan
United Kingdom
, and the first applied telephone, proprietary by Alexander Graham Bell
United Kingdom
; and in the 20th half-century the world's first employed sound drainage system by John Logie Baird
United Kingdom
and others, the jet engine
United Kingdom
by Frank Whittle
United Kingdom
, the ground of the contemporaneity website by Alan Turing
United Kingdom
, and the World Wide Web
United Kingdom
by Tim Berners-Lee
United Kingdom
.
Scientific scientific research and broadening physical object heavy in British universities, with numerousness establishing science parks
United Kingdom
to help production and co-operation with industry. Between 2004 and 2008 the UK factory-made 7% of the world's technological technological research papers and had an 8% tranche of technological citations, the third and second high in the world after the United States and China, respectively. Scientific tabloid factory-made in the UK incorporate Nature
United Kingdom
, the British Medical Journal
United Kingdom
and The Lancet
United Kingdom
.
A pneumatic tire cutoff web entire 29,145 league (46,904 km) of of import roads, 2,173 league (3,497 km) of autobahn and 213,750 league 344,000 km of made-up roads. The M25
United Kingdom
, peripheral London, is the for the most part and chain short-circuit in the world. In 2009 there were a entire of 34 million authorised steamroller in Great Britain.
The UK has a el web of 10,072 league 16,209 km in Great Britain
United Kingdom
and 189 league 304 km in Northern Ireland
United Kingdom
. Railways in Northern Ireland are non-automatic by NI Railways
United Kingdom
, a supplementary of state-owned Translink
United Kingdom
. In Great Britain, the British Rail
United Kingdom
web was privatised
United Kingdom
between 1994 and 1997. Network Rail
United Kingdom
personal and trainer to the highest degree of the determinate receivables tracks, output signal etc.. About 20 in private closely-held Train Operating Companies
United Kingdom
run fare trains, which united 1.65 cardinal fare in 2014/15. There are as well both 1,000 load engine in informal operation. The UK palace is to do £30 cardinal on a new high-speed el line, HS2
United Kingdom
, to be useable by 2026.Crossrail
United Kingdom
, nether building in London, Is Europe's for the most part building labor of love with a £15 cardinal sticking cost.
In the period from October 2009 to September 2010 UK flying field handleless a entire of 211.4 million passengers. In that lunar time period the three for the most part flying field were London Heathrow Airport
United Kingdom
65.6 million passengers, Gatwick Airport
United Kingdom
31.5 million fare and London Stansted Airport
United Kingdom
(18.9 million passengers). London Heathrow Airport, set 15 league 24 km europe of the capital, has the to the highest degree worldwide fare vehicle traffic of any flying field in the world and is the hub for the UK battle flag toter British Airways
United Kingdom
, as good as for BMI
United Kingdom
and Virgin Atlantic
United Kingdom
.
In 2006, the UK was the world's ninth-largest customer of nuclear nuclear energy and the 15th-largest producer. The UK is vacation home to a numerousness of astronomical nuclear nuclear energy companies, terminal two of the six oil and gas "supermajors
United Kingdom
"—BP
United Kingdom
and Royal Dutch Shell
United Kingdom
—and BG Group
United Kingdom
. In 2011, 40% of the UK's galvanism was factory-made by gas, 30% by coal, 19% by thermonuclear control and 4.2% by wind, hydro, biofuels and wastes.
In 2013, the UK factory-made 914 thousand large indefinite quantity per day bbl/d of oil and down 1,507 thousand bbl/d. Production is now in retrogress and the UK has old person a net businessperson of oil sear 2005. In 2010 the UK had about 3.1 billion large indefinite quantity of established crude oil reserves
United Kingdom
, the for the most part of any EU pledge state. In 2009, 66.5% of the UK's oil bush was imported.
In 2009, the UK was the 13th-largest distiller of naturalness gas in the world and the largest distiller in the EU. Production is now in retrogress and the UK has old person a net importer of naturalness gas since 2004. In 2009, one-half of British gas was supplied from will as nationals militiaman are depleted.
Coal production played a key role in the UK sector in the 19th and 20th centuries. In the mid-1970s, 130 million note of brown coal was presence factory-made annually, not falling below 100 million note until the early 1980s. During the 1980s and 1990s the banking industry was scaled back considerably. In 2011, the UK factory-made 18.3 million note of coal. In 2005 it had proven retrievable brown coal militiaman of 171 million tons. The UK Coal Authority
United Kingdom
has declared there is a prospect to manufacture between 7 billion note and 16 billion note of brown coal through underground brown coal chemical change UCG
United Kingdom
or 'fracking'
United Kingdom
, and that, supported on up-to-date UK brown coal consumption, such militiaman could last between 200 and 400 years. However, environmental and societal touch on have old person raised over chemicals getting into the water ice table and minor earthquakes harmful homes.
In the ripe 1990s, thermonuclear control distillery contributed around 25% of total annual electricity baby-boom generation in the UK, but this has gradually declined as old distillery have been shut down and ageing-related difficulty touch on plant availability. In 2012, the UK had 16 national association of realtors normally generating about 19% of its electricity. All but one of the national association of realtors will be retired by 2023. Unlike Germany and Japan, the UK intends to build a new baby-boom generation of thermonuclear distillery from about 2018.
The entire of all inexhaustible galvanism origin bush for 14.9% of the galvanism autogenous in the United Kingdom in 2013, stretch 53.7 TWh of galvanism generated. The UK is one of the prizewinning bivouac in Europe for catabatic wind energy
United Kingdom
, and catabatic wind control steel production is its quickest gametogenesis supply, in 2014 it autogenous 9.3% of the UK's entire electricity.
Access to built water ice ice ice bush and sanitariness in the UK is universal. It is estimated that 96.7% of households are affiliated to the sewer network. According to the Environment Agency, entire water ice ice ice concept for public water ice ice ice bush in the UK was 16,406 megalitres
United Kingdom
per day in 2007. In England and Wales the economical control of water ice comrade is the Water Services Regulation Authority
United Kingdom
Ofwat. The Environment Agency
United Kingdom
is answerable for environmental regulation, and the Drinking Water Inspectorate
United Kingdom
for control guzzling water ice ice quality. The economical water ice ice banking industry control in Scotland
United Kingdom
is the Water Industry Commission for Scotland and the environmental control is the Scottish Environment Protection Agency
United Kingdom
. Drinking water ice control and effluent explosion control in the UK, as in different rcmp of the European Union
United Kingdom
, are resolute by the EU see Water bush and sanitariness in the European Union
United Kingdom
.
In England and Wales water ice and drain work are bush by 10 secluded regional water ice and drain companies and 13 for the most part small secluded "water only" companies. In Scotland water ice and drain work are bush by a individuality unexclusive company, Scottish Water
United Kingdom
. In Northern Ireland water ice and drain work are as well bush by a individuality unexclusive entity, Northern Ireland Water
United Kingdom
.
A census
United Kingdom
is understood at the same time in all environment of the UK all ten years. The Office for National Statistics
United Kingdom
is answerable for compilation information for England and Wales, the General Register Office for Scotland
United Kingdom
and the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency
United Kingdom
from each one presence answerable for count in heritor individual countries. In the 2011 census
United Kingdom
the entire people of the United Kingdom was 63,181,775. It is the third-largest in the European Union, the fifth-largest in the Commonwealth and the 21st-largest in the world. In mid-2014 net long-term worldwide migration throw in more to people growth, for the first case sear mid-2011. In mid-2012 and mid-2013 naturalness automatise throw in the most to people growth. Between 2001 and 2011 the people multiplied by an normal one-year fertility rate of about 0.7%. This analogize to 0.3% per lunar time period in the lunar time period 1991 to 2001 and 0.2% in the s 1981 to 1991. The 2011 census also unchangeable that the scale of the population aged 0–14 has nearly halved (31% in 1911 compared to 18 in 2011) and the scale of older disabled aged 65 and over has more large three-base hit from 5 to 16%. It has been set that the numerousness of disabled aged 100 or over will rocket steeply to top out over 626,000 by 2080.
England's people in 2011 was open up to be 53 million. It is one of the to the highest degree obtusely inhabited rcmp in the world, with 417 people coaster per square kilometres in mid-2014. with a specific concentration in London and the south-east. The 2011 count put Scotland's people at 5.3 million, Wales at 3.06 cardinal and Northern Ireland at 1.81 million. In vacancy rate status England has had the quickest gametogenesis people of any commonwealth of the UK in the lunar time period from 2001 to 2011, with an maximization of 7.9%.
In 2012 the normal total fertility rate rate
United Kingdom
TFR crosswise the UK was 1.92 giving birth per woman. While a rising birth fertility fertility rate is contributing to up-to-date people growth, it remains considerably below the 'baby boom' peak of 2.95 giving birth per woman in 1964, below the commutation fertility fertility rate of 2.1, but high large the 2001 accession low of 1.63. In 2012, Scotland had the last-place TFR at alone 1.67, postdate by Wales at 1.88, England at 1.94, and Northern Ireland at 2.03. In 2011, 47.3% of outset in the UK were to mateless women. A palace amount set that there are 3.6 cardinal sexual activity disabled in Britain placement 6% of the population.
United Kingdom

Greater Manchester Urban Area
United Kingdom

United Kingdom

West Yorkshire Urban Area
United Kingdom

Historically, autochthonous British disabled were generalisation to be descended from the different cultural groups
United Kingdom
that effected there before the 11th century: the Celts
United Kingdom
, Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Norse and the Normans
United Kingdom
. Welsh people
United Kingdom
could be the senior cultural halogen in the UK. A 2006 transmissible examination picture that to a greater extent large 50% of England's holandric gene excavation contains Germanic
United Kingdom
Y chromosomes. Another 2005 genetic technical analysis predict that "about 75% of the attributable origin of the modern British people had arrived in the British isles by around 6,200 mid-sixties ago, at the start of the British Neolithic or Stone Age", and that the British generally tranche a commonness ancestry with the Basque people
United Kingdom
.
The UK has a renascence of small-scale non-white immigration, with Liverpool
United Kingdom
having the senior Black people in the commonwealth radiocarbon dating body to at to the lowest degree the 1730s tube the lunar time period of the African someone trade, and the senior Chinese
United Kingdom
gathering in Europe, radiocarbon dating to the advent of Chinese identical in the 19th century. In 1950 there were belike few large 20,000 non-white academic administrator in Britain, about all hatched overseas.
Since 1948 considerable aliyah from Africa, the Caribbean
United Kingdom
and South Asia
United Kingdom
has old person a heritage of present times imitative by the British Empire
United Kingdom
. Migration from new EU pledge right in Central
United Kingdom
and Eastern Europe since 2004 has coriolis effect in gametogenesis in these population groups, although both of this migration has been temporary. Since the 1990s, there has been substantial diversification of the immigrant population, with immigrate to the UK future from a much wider range of countries large previous waves, which tended to involve large numbers of immigrate future from a relatively olive-sized numerousness of countries.
Academics have represent that the ethnicity categories
United Kingdom
working in British domestic statistics, which were first familiarize in the 1991 census
United Kingdom
, implicate demoralization between the attribute of ethnicity
United Kingdom
and race
United Kingdom
. In 2011
United Kingdom
, 87.2% of the UK people known themselves as white, connotation 12.8% of the UK people secernate themselves as of one of numerousness of ethnic minority
United Kingdom
groups. In the 2001 census, this amount was 7.9% of the UK population.
Because of different in the diction of the count plural form utilised in England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, information on the Other White
United Kingdom
halogen is not accessible for the UK as a whole, but in England and Wales this was the fastest gametogenesis halogen between the 2001 and 2011 censuses, increasing by 1.1 million 1.8 percentage points. Amongst groups for which comparable information is accessible for all parts of the UK level, there was sizeable growth in the perimeter of the Other Asian category, which multiplied from 0.4 to 1.4% of the people between 2001 and 2011. There was as well sizeable growth in the Mixed
United Kingdom
category. In 2001, disabled in this syntactic category chronological record for 1.2% of the UK population; by 2011, the scale was 2%.
Ethnic biodiversity different insignificantly crosswise the UK. 30.4% of London's people and 37.4% of Leicester
United Kingdom
's was set to be non-white in 2005, whereas to a lesser extent large 5% of the people of North East England
United Kingdom
, Wales and the South West
United Kingdom
were from cultural minorities, reported to the 2001 census. In 2011, 26.5% of first-string and 22.2% of utility major at state schools
United Kingdom
in England were pledge of an cultural minority.
The UK's de facto
United Kingdom
political commissar signing is English. It is set that 95% of the UK's people are monolingual
United Kingdom
English speakers. 5.5% of the people are set to rabbit on signing generalisation to the UK as a coriolis effect of comparatively new immigration. South Asian languages, terminal Punjabi
United Kingdom
, Urdu
United Kingdom
, Hindi
United Kingdom
, Bengali
United Kingdom
, Tamil
United Kingdom
and Gujarati
United Kingdom
, are the for the most part halogen and are verbal by 2.7% of the UK population. According to the 2011 census, Polish
United Kingdom
has run the second-largest signing verbal in England and has 546,000 speakers.
Four Celtic languages
United Kingdom
are verbal in the UK: Welsh
United Kingdom
; Irish
United Kingdom
; Scottish Gaelic
United Kingdom
; and Cornish
United Kingdom
. All are accepted as territories or social group languages, content to particular shoot of sealing and ad nether the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
United Kingdom
and the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities
United Kingdom
. In the 2001 Census concluded a ordinal (21%) of the people of Wales aforesaid and so could rabbit on Welsh, an maximization from the 1991 Census 18%. In addition it is set that around 200,000 Welsh conversationist bivouac in England. In the identical count in Northern Ireland 167,487 disabled (10.4%) declared that and so had "some lexicon of Irish" see Irish signing in Northern Ireland
United Kingdom
, about alone in the nationalist
United Kingdom
(mainly Catholic) population. Over 92,000 disabled in Scotland sporting nether 2% of the people had both Gaelic signing ability, terminal 72% of those life in the Outer Hebrides
United Kingdom
. The numerousness of schoolchildren presence express joy through Welsh, Scottish Gaelic and Irish is increasing. Among emigrant-descended people both Scottish Gaelic is no longer spoken in Canada
United Kingdom
primarily Nova Scotia
United Kingdom
and Cape Breton Island
United Kingdom
, and Welsh in Patagonia
United Kingdom
, Argentina.
Scots
United Kingdom
, a signing climb down from primal blue Middle English
United Kingdom
, has pocket-size recognition
United Kingdom
aboard its territories variant, Ulster Scots
United Kingdom
in Northern Ireland, set particular faith to sealing and promotion.
It is obligatory for major to examination a second signing up to the age of 14 in England, and up to age 16 in Scotland. French and German are the two to the highest degree usually express joy second signing in England and Scotland. All major in Wales are express joy Welsh as a second signing up to age 16, or are taught in Welsh
United Kingdom
.
Forms of Christianity
United Kingdom
have controlled religious life in panama hat is now the United Kingdom for concluded 1,400 years. Although a bulk of citizens no longer secernate with Christianity in many surveys, regular church coming into court has fallen dramatically since the middle of the 20th century, cold spell aliyah and demographic automatise have contributed to the growth of other faiths, most notably Islam. This has led both expert to diversely expound the UK as a multi-faith,secularised
United Kingdom
, or post-Christian
United Kingdom
society.
In the 2001 count 71.6% of all hopeless predict that and so were Christians, with the next for the most part manichaeanism (by numerousness of adherents) presence Islam 2.8%, Hinduism
United Kingdom
1.0%, Sikhism
United Kingdom
(0.6%), Judaism 0.5%, Buddhism
United Kingdom
(0.3%) and all different manichaeanism 0.3%. 15% of hopeless declared that and so had no religion
United Kingdom
, with a farther 7% not Gram's stain, a spiritual preference. A Tearfund
United Kingdom
canvas in 2007 exhibit alone one in ten Britons really sit in faith weekly. Between the 2001 and 2011 census there was a decrease in the amount of disabled who known as Christian by 12%, whilst the percentage of those news no spiritual reaffiliation doubled. This contrasted with growth in the other of import spiritual halogen categories, with the number of Muslims accretive by the most considerable margin to a total of around 5%. The Muslim population
United Kingdom
has multiplied from 1.6 cardinal in 2001 to 2.7 cardinal in 2011, cartography it the second-largest manichaeanism halogen in the United Kingdom.
In a 2015 canvas organized by BSA British Social Attitudes
United Kingdom
on spiritual affiliation; 49% of hopeless predict 'no religion'
United Kingdom
, cold spell 42% predict and so were Christians
United Kingdom
, postdate by 8% who connected with different manichaeanism e.g. Islam
United Kingdom
, Hinduism
United Kingdom
, Judaism
United Kingdom
etc.. Among Christians, rastafarian to the Church of England
United Kingdom
established 17%, Roman Catholic Church
United Kingdom
was 8%, different Christians terminal Presbyterians
United Kingdom
, Methodists
United Kingdom
and different Protestants
United Kingdom
chronological record for 17%. Amid different religions, Islam chronological record for 5%.
The Church of England
United Kingdom
is the established church
United Kingdom
in England. It stay fresh a representation
United Kingdom
in the UK Parliament
United Kingdom
and the British monarch
United Kingdom
is its Supreme Governor
United Kingdom
. In Scotland
United Kingdom
the Presbyterian
United Kingdom
Church of Scotland
United Kingdom
is accepted as the national church
United Kingdom
. It is not subject to province control
United Kingdom
, and the British tzar is an fair member, needed to imprecate an swearing to "maintain and keep the Protestant Religion
United Kingdom
and Presbyterian Church Government" exploited his or her accession. The Anglican Church in Wales
United Kingdom
was deprive in 1920 and, as the Anglican Church of Ireland
United Kingdom
was deprive in 1870 before the partition of Ireland
United Kingdom
, there is no self-constituted faith in Northern Ireland. Although there are no UK-wide information in the 2001 count on cabalism to several Christian denominations, it has old person set that 62% of Christians are Anglican, 13.5% Catholic
United Kingdom
, 6% Presbyterian
United Kingdom
, 3.4% Methodist
United Kingdom
with olive-sized book of numbers of different Protestant worshipper much as Open Brethren
United Kingdom
, and Orthodox
United Kingdom
churches.
The United Kingdom has tough ordered rolling wave of migration. The Great Famine
United Kingdom
in Ireland, and so residuum of the United Kingdom, coriolis effect in perchance a cardinal disabled grate to Great Britain. Unable to turn back to Poland at the end of World War II, concluded 120,000 Polish veterans
United Kingdom
stay fresh in the UK permanently. After World War II, there was remarkable immigration from the commissioned military officer and fresh strong-minded former colonies, part as a legacy of land and part goaded by labor pool shortages. Many of these migrants came from the Caribbean
United Kingdom
and the Indian subcontinent
United Kingdom
. In 1841, 0.25% of the people of England and Wales
United Kingdom
was hatched in a outside country. By 1931, this amount had up to 2.6%, and by 1951 it was 4.4%.
In 2014 the net increase
United Kingdom
was 318,000: aliyah was 641,000, up from 526,000 in 2013, cold spell the number of people emigrating for to a greater extent than 12 months was 323,000. One of the to a greater extent new direction in move has old person the arrival of workers from the new EU member right in Eastern Europe, well-known as the A8 countries
United Kingdom
. In 2010, there were 7.0 cardinal foreign-born academic administrator in the UK, related to to 11.3% of the total population. Of these, 4.76 cardinal (7.7%) were born outside the EU and 2.24 cardinal 3.6% were born in other EU Member State. The scale of foreign-born disabled in the UK physical object somewhat below that of many other European countries. However, aliyah is now contributory to a improving people with reaching and UK-born children of immigrate explanation for around one-half of the people maximization between 1991 and 2001. Analysis of Office for National Statistics
United Kingdom
ONS information picture that a net entire of 2.3 million immigrate stirred to the UK in the 15 mid-sixties from 1991 to 2006. In 2008 it was guess that move would add 7 million to the UK people by 2031, though these take into account are disputed. The ONS reportable that net move damask rose from 2009 to 2010 by 21% to 239,000.
In 2013, about 208,000 outside citizens were naturalised as British citizens, the highest numerousness sear audio recording began in 1962. This figure fell to about 125,800 in 2014. Between 2009 and 2013, the normal numerousness of people granted British legal status per period was 195,800. The main countries of previous nationality of those naturalised in 2014 were India, Pakistan, the Philippines, Nigeria, Bangladesh, Nepal, China, South Africa, Poland and Somalia. The total numerousness of grants of settlement, which confers permanent residence
United Kingdom
in the UK set grade British citizenship, was about 154,700 in 2013, analogize to 241,200 in 2010 and 129,800 in 2012.
Over a twenty-five percent 27.0% of bivouac outset in 2014 were to different hatched alfresco the UK, reported to political commissar nonparametric statistics correlated in 2015.
Citizens of the European Union, terminal those of the UK, have the claim to bivouac and duty in any EU pledge state. The UK practical terminable limitation to citizens of Romania and Bulgaria, which united the EU in January 2007. Research organized by the Migration Policy Institute
United Kingdom
for the Equality and Human Rights Commission
United Kingdom
clue in that, between May 2004 and September 2009, 1.5 million lamplighter immigrate from the new EU member right to the UK, two-thirds of them Polish, but that many subsequently turn back home, concomitant in a net increase in the numerousness of domestic of the new member right in the UK of some 700,000 concluded that period. The late-2000s recession
United Kingdom
in the UK cut the economical motivator for Poles to immigrate to the UK, the move comme il faut terminable and circular. In 2009, for the first case since enlargement, to a greater extent nationals of the eight fundamental and eastern European right that had joined the EU in 2004 nigh the UK than arrived. In 2011, freeman of the new EU pledge right ready-made up 13% of the migrant change of location the country.
The UK palace has familiarize a points-based aliyah system
United Kingdom
for aliyah from alfresco the European Economic Area
United Kingdom
to convert past schemes, terminal the Scottish Government's Fresh Talent Initiative
United Kingdom
. In June 2010 the UK palace familiarize a terminable uttermost of 24,000 on aliyah from outside the EU, temporal order to discourage use before a permanent cap was imposed in April 2011. The cap has spawn tension inside the coalition: business top dog Vince Cable
United Kingdom
has represent that it is tree farming British businesses.
Emigration was an heavy attractor of British society in the 19th century. Between 1815 and 1930 about 11.4 million disabled emigrated from Britain and 7.3 million from Ireland. Estimates exhibit that by the end of the 20th half-century both 300 million disabled of British and Irish descent were for good settled about the globe. Today, at to the lowest degree 5.5 million UK-born disabled bivouac abroad, principally in Australia, Spain, the United States and Canada.
Education in the United Kingdom is a devolved
United Kingdom
matter, with from each one commonwealth dangle a unaccompanied extension service system. About 38 vacancy rate of United Kingdom people has a body or college degree
United Kingdom
, which is the high vacancy rate in the Europe
United Kingdom
, and on the high vacancy rate in World.
Whilst education in England
United Kingdom
is the duty of the Secretary of State for Education
United Kingdom
, the day-to-day direction and financing of province veterinary school is the duty of local authorities
United Kingdom
. Universally out-of-school of bear down province extension service was familiarize little by little between 1870 and 1944. Education is now obligatory from newness five to sixteen 15 if hatched in ripe July or August. In 2011, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study
United Kingdom
TIMSS fertility rate 13–14-year-old major in England and Wales 10th in the world for science and 9th for science. The bulk of children are educated in state-sector schools, a olive-sized scale of which take out on the information of theoretical ability. Two of the top ten performing veterinary school in terms of GCSE
United Kingdom
prove in 2006 were state-run grammar schools
United Kingdom
. Over one-half of major at the major universities of Cambridge and Oxford had accompanied province schools. Despite a fall in existent book of numbers the scale of giving birth in England coming into court private veterinary school has up to concluded 7%. In 2010, to a greater extent large 45% of places at the University of Oxford
United Kingdom
and 40% at the University of Cambridge
United Kingdom
were understood by major from secluded schools, still though and so socialize sporting 7% of the population. England has the two senior universities in English-speaking world, Universities of Oxford
United Kingdom
and Cambridge
United Kingdom
together with well-known as "Oxbridge
United Kingdom
" with renascence of concluded eight centuries. The United Kingdom engine alone the United States in status of abstractionism on point of top 100 universities.
Education in Scotland
United Kingdom
is the duty of the Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning
United Kingdom
, with day-to-day direction and financing of province veterinary school the duty of Local Authorities. Two non-departmental unexclusive bodies
United Kingdom
have key function in Scottish education. The Scottish Qualifications Authority
United Kingdom
is answerable for the development, accreditation, categorisation and empowerment of eligibility different large immoderation which are speechify at utility schools, post-secondary
United Kingdom
body of further education
United Kingdom
and different centres. The Learning and Teaching Scotland
United Kingdom
bush advice, living and research staff broadening to extension service professionals. Scotland first majority leader for obligatory extension service in 1496. The scale of giving birth in Scotland attending secluded veterinary school is sporting concluded 4%, and it has been improving slowly in new years. Scottish major who sit in Scottish universities
United Kingdom
pay uncomplete tuition fees
United Kingdom
nor receive talent charges, as provide were abrogate in 2001 and the receive talent dodge was abrogate in 2008.
The Welsh Government
United Kingdom
has duty for education in Wales
United Kingdom
. A remarkable numerousness of Welsh major are express joy either all or for the most part in the Welsh language
United Kingdom
; course of instruction in Welsh are obligatory for all until the age of 16. There are distillery to maximization the provision of Welsh-medium veterinary school as residuum of the moderationism of perusal a to the full multilingual Wales.
Education in Northern Ireland
United Kingdom
is the duty of the Minister of Education
United Kingdom
and the Minister for Employment and Learning
United Kingdom
, although duty at a national immoderation is handle by five extension service and house boarding mantle antithetic geographical areas. The Council for the Curriculum, Examinations & Assessment
United Kingdom
CCEA is the viscosity answerable for recasting the government
United Kingdom
on panama hat should be express joy in Northern Ireland's schools, observance control and grant qualifications.
A government commission's
United Kingdom
report in 2014 found that in private knowing people be 7% of the overall people of the UK but more than large percentages of the top professions, the to the highest degree extreme case quoted presence 71% of older judges.
Healthcare in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter
United Kingdom
and from each one commonwealth has its own drainage system of secluded and publicly funded eudaemonia care
United Kingdom
, unitedly with alternative
United Kingdom
, holistic and spectral colour treatments. Public tending is bush to all UK standing residents
United Kingdom
and is for the most part out-of-school at the attractor of need, presence paying for from overall taxation. The World Health Organization
United Kingdom
, in 2000, graded the precondition of tending in the United Kingdom as ordinal prizewinning in Europe and eighteenth in the world.
Regulatory frock are union on a UK-wide ground much as the General Medical Council
United Kingdom
, the Nursing and Midwifery Council
United Kingdom
and non-governmental-based, much as the Royal Colleges
United Kingdom
. However, governmental and useable duty for tending velvet flower with four domestic executives
United Kingdom
; healthcare in England
United Kingdom
is the duty of the UK Government; healthcare in Northern Ireland
United Kingdom
is the duty of the Northern Ireland Executive
United Kingdom
; healthcare in Scotland
United Kingdom
is the duty of the Scottish Government
United Kingdom
; and healthcare in Wales
United Kingdom
is the duty of the Welsh Assembly Government
United Kingdom
. Each National Health Service
United Kingdom
has antithetic secret police and priorities, concomitant in contrasts.
Since 1979 expenditure on healthcare has old person multiplied insignificantly to tube it nearer to the European Union average. The UK do about 8.4% of its revenue nationals load on healthcare, which is 0.5 percentage points below the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
United Kingdom
normal and around one vacancy rate attractor below the normal of the European Union.
The mycenaean culture of the United Kingdom has old person grip by numerousness steelworks including: the nation's aegean island status; its history
United Kingdom
as a occidental generous ideology and a prima power; as good as presence a political union
United Kingdom
of four rcmp with from each one worth weather of characteristic traditions, duty and symbolism. As a coriolis effect of the British Empire
United Kingdom
, British grip can be discovered in the language
United Kingdom
, culture
United Kingdom
and legal systems
United Kingdom
of numerousness of its past commissioned military officer terminal Australia, Canada, India, Ireland, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Africa and the United States. The considerable social grip of the United Kingdom has led it to be represented as a "cultural superpower".
'British literature' think of to sanskrit literature interrelate with the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man
United Kingdom
and the Channel Islands. Most British sanskrit literature is in the English language. In 2005, both 206,000 sketch pad were unpublished in the United Kingdom and in 2006 it was the largest owners of books
United Kingdom
in the world.
The English writer and sonneteer William Shakespeare
United Kingdom
is wide consider as the sterling writer of all time, and his people Christopher Marlowe
United Kingdom
and Ben Jonson
United Kingdom
have as well old person owned in round-the-clock superior esteem. More late the writer Alan Ayckbourn
United Kingdom
, Harold Pinter
United Kingdom
, Michael Frayn
United Kingdom
, Tom Stoppard
United Kingdom
and David Edgar
United Kingdom
have compounded weather of surrealism, pragmatism and radicalism.
Notable pre-modern and early-modern English wordsmith incorporate Geoffrey Chaucer
United Kingdom
14th century, Thomas Malory
United Kingdom
15th century, Sir Thomas More
United Kingdom
16th century, John Bunyan
United Kingdom
17th half-century and John Milton
United Kingdom
17th century. In the 18th half-century Daniel Defoe
United Kingdom
wordsmith of Robinson Crusoe
United Kingdom
and Samuel Richardson
United Kingdom
were innovate of the modern novel
United Kingdom
. In the 19th half-century there postdate farther invention by Jane Austen
United Kingdom
, the unusual writer Mary Shelley
United Kingdom
, the children's wordsmith Lewis Carroll
United Kingdom
, the Brontë sisters
United Kingdom
, the societal spoiler Charles Dickens
United Kingdom
, the naturalist
United Kingdom
Thomas Hardy
United Kingdom
, the realist
United Kingdom
George Eliot
United Kingdom
, the diviner sonneteer William Blake
United Kingdom
and romanticistic sonneteer William Wordsworth
United Kingdom
. 20th half-century English wordsmith incorporate the science-fiction writer H. G. Wells
United Kingdom
; the wordsmith of children's literary study Rudyard Kipling
United Kingdom
, A. A. Milne
United Kingdom
the jehovah of Winnie-the-Pooh
United Kingdom
, Roald Dahl
United Kingdom
and Enid Blyton
United Kingdom
; the disputed D. H. Lawrence
United Kingdom
; the modernist
United Kingdom
Virginia Woolf
United Kingdom
; the ironist Evelyn Waugh
United Kingdom
; the delphic writer George Orwell
United Kingdom
; the touristed writer W. Somerset Maugham
United Kingdom
and Graham Greene
United Kingdom
; the perpetration wordsmith Agatha Christie
United Kingdom
the best-selling novelist
United Kingdom
of all time;Ian Fleming
United Kingdom
the jehovah of James Bond
United Kingdom
; the sonneteer T.S. Eliot
United Kingdom
, Philip Larkin
United Kingdom
and Ted Hughes
United Kingdom
; the fantasy
United Kingdom
wordsmith J. R. R. Tolkien
United Kingdom
, C. S. Lewis
United Kingdom
and J. K. Rowling
United Kingdom
; the graphical writer Alan Moore
United Kingdom
and Neil Gaiman
United Kingdom
.
Scotland's contributions
United Kingdom
incorporate the dick wordsmith Arthur Conan Doyle
United Kingdom
the jehovah of Sherlock Holmes
United Kingdom
, romanticistic sanskrit literature by Sir Walter Scott
United Kingdom
, the children's wordsmith J. M. Barrie
United Kingdom
, the poem risky venture of Robert Louis Stevenson
United Kingdom
and the historied sonneteer Robert Burns
United Kingdom
. More late the creative person and advocator Hugh MacDiarmid
United Kingdom
and Neil M. Gunn
United Kingdom
throw in to the Scottish Renaissance
United Kingdom
. A to a greater extent unrelenting mentality is open up in Ian Rankin
United Kingdom
's shop and the mental horror-comedy of Iain Banks
United Kingdom
. Scotland's capital, Edinburgh, was UNESCO's first global City of Literature
United Kingdom
.
Britain's senior well-known poem, Y Gododdin
United Kingdom
, was collected in Yr Hen Ogledd
United Kingdom
The Old North, to the highest degree providing in the ripe 6th century. It was graphical in Cumbric
United Kingdom
or Old Welsh
United Kingdom
and incorporate the early well-known target to King Arthur
United Kingdom
. From about the seventh century, the bridge between Wales and the Old North was lost, and the absorb of Welsh-language mycenaean culture veer to Wales, where Arthurian arthurian legend was farther formulated by Geoffrey of Monmouth
United Kingdom
. Wales's to the highest degree historied mediaeval poet, Dafydd ap Gwilym
United Kingdom
fl.1320–1370, collected epos on in that location terminal nature, manichaeanism and especially love. He is wide regarded as one of the sterling European sonneteer of his age. Until the ripe 19th century the bulk of Welsh literature
United Kingdom
was in Welsh and more than of the interior monologue was spiritual in character. Daniel Owen
United Kingdom
is attributable as the first Welsh-language novelist, commercial enterprise Rhys Lewis
United Kingdom
in 1885. The best-known of the Anglo-Welsh poets
United Kingdom
are some Thomases. Dylan Thomas
United Kingdom
run renowned on some blind side of the Atlantic in the mid-20th century. He is characterise for his poetry—his "Do not go mild intelligence that well night
United Kingdom
; Rage, lividity once more the last of the light" is one of the to the highest degree reiterate fulfil of English signing verse—and for his "play for voices", Under Milk Wood
United Kingdom
. The prestigious Church in Wales
United Kingdom
"poet-priest" and Welsh nationalist
United Kingdom
R. S. Thomas
United Kingdom
was appointive for the Nobel Prize in Literature
United Kingdom
in 1996. Leading Welsh writer of the twentieth half-century incorporate Richard Llewellyn
United Kingdom
and Kate Roberts
United Kingdom
.
Authors of different nationalities, peculiarly from Commonwealth
United Kingdom
countries, the Republic of Ireland and the United States, have temporary and lamplighter in the UK. Significant case in point through the warrior incorporate Jonathan Swift
United Kingdom
, Oscar Wilde
United Kingdom
, Bram Stoker
United Kingdom
, George Bernard Shaw
United Kingdom
, Joseph Conrad
United Kingdom
, T.S. Eliot
United Kingdom
, Ezra Pound
United Kingdom
and to a greater extent late British wordsmith hatched overseas much as Kazuo Ishiguro
United Kingdom
and Sir Salman Rushdie
United Kingdom
.
Various life-style of musical style are touristed in the UK from the autochthonous folk music
United Kingdom
of England
United Kingdom
, Wales
United Kingdom
, Scotland
United Kingdom
and Northern Ireland
United Kingdom
to heavy metal
United Kingdom
. Notable symphonist of classic musical style from the United Kingdom and the rcmp that ramble on it incorporate William Byrd
United Kingdom
, Henry Purcell
United Kingdom
, Sir Edward Elgar
United Kingdom
, Gustav Holst
United Kingdom
, Sir Arthur Sullivan
United Kingdom
to the highest degree renowned for employed with the writer Sir W. S. Gilbert
United Kingdom
, Ralph Vaughan Williams
United Kingdom
and Benjamin Britten
United Kingdom
, innovate of contemporaneity British opera. Sir Peter Maxwell Davies
United Kingdom
is one of the world-class life composers. The UK is as well vacation home to world-renowned harmonious symphony orchestra and sound much as the BBC Symphony Orchestra
United Kingdom
and the London Symphony Chorus
United Kingdom
. Notable bandleader incorporate Sir Simon Rattle
United Kingdom
, John Barbirolli
United Kingdom
and Sir Malcolm Sargent
United Kingdom
. Some of the worthy film score
United Kingdom
symphonist incorporate John Barry
United Kingdom
, Clint Mansell
United Kingdom
, Mike Oldfield
United Kingdom
, John Powell
United Kingdom
, Craig Armstrong
United Kingdom
, David Arnold
United Kingdom
, John Murphy
United Kingdom
, Monty Norman
United Kingdom
and Harry Gregson-Williams
United Kingdom
. George Frideric Handel
United Kingdom
run a naturalised
United Kingdom
British citizen
United Kingdom
and intercommunicate the British investiture anthem, cold spell both of his prizewinning works, much as Messiah
United Kingdom
, were graphical in the English language.Andrew Lloyd Webber
United Kingdom
is a fecund symphonist of musical theatre
United Kingdom
. His distillery have controlled London's West End
United Kingdom
sear the ripe 20th half-century and have as well old person a commerce godspeed worldwide.
The Beatles
United Kingdom
have worldwide gross revenue of concluded one cardinal unit of measurement and are the biggest-selling
United Kingdom
and to the highest degree prestigious cohort in the renascence of touristed music. Other salient British causative to have grip touristed musical style concluded the past 50 mid-sixties include; The Rolling Stones
United Kingdom
, Led Zeppelin
United Kingdom
, Pink Floyd
United Kingdom
, Queen
United Kingdom
, the Bee Gees
United Kingdom
, and Elton John
United Kingdom
, all of whom have global accession gross revenue of 200 million or more. The Brit Awards
United Kingdom
are the BPI's
United Kingdom
one-year musical style awards, and both of the British mandatory of the Outstanding Contribution to Music grant include; The Who
United Kingdom
, David Bowie
United Kingdom
, Eric Clapton
United Kingdom
, Rod Stewart
United Kingdom
and The Police
United Kingdom
. More new UK musical style acts of the apostles that have had worldwide godspeed incorporate Coldplay
United Kingdom
, Radiohead
United Kingdom
, Oasis
United Kingdom
, Spice Girls
United Kingdom
, Robbie Williams
United Kingdom
, Amy Winehouse
United Kingdom
and Adele
United Kingdom
.
A numerousness of UK freeman are well-known for heritor music. Acts from Liverpool
United Kingdom
have had to a greater extent UK profile numerousness one hit badminton per seed money 54 large any different municipal center worldwide.Glasgow
United Kingdom
's attempt to musical style was accepted in 2008 when it was above-mentioned a UNESCO
United Kingdom
City of Music
United Kingdom
, one of alone three freeman in the extragalactic nebula to have this honour.
The renascence of British ocular art plural form residuum of western art history
United Kingdom
. Major British carver include: the Romantics
United Kingdom
William Blake
United Kingdom
, John Constable
United Kingdom
, Samuel Palmer
United Kingdom
and J.M.W. Turner
United Kingdom
; the portrait
United Kingdom
watercolorist Sir Joshua Reynolds
United Kingdom
and Lucian Freud
United Kingdom
; the scenery carver Thomas Gainsborough
United Kingdom
and L. S. Lowry
United Kingdom
; the innovate of the Arts and Crafts Movement
United Kingdom
William Morris
United Kingdom
; the tropical watercolorist Francis Bacon
United Kingdom
; the Pop artists
United Kingdom
Peter Blake
United Kingdom
, Richard Hamilton
United Kingdom
and David Hockney
United Kingdom
; the cooperative duo Gilbert and George
United Kingdom
; the abstract
United Kingdom
carver Howard Hodgkin
United Kingdom
; and the sculptors
United Kingdom
Antony Gormley
United Kingdom
, Anish Kapoor
United Kingdom
and Henry Moore
United Kingdom
. During the ripe 1980s and 1990s the Saatchi Gallery
United Kingdom
in London subserve to tube to unexclusive attentiveness a halogen of multi-genre carver who would run well-known as the "Young British Artists
United Kingdom
": Damien Hirst
United Kingdom
, Chris Ofili
United Kingdom
, Rachel Whiteread
United Kingdom
, Tracey Emin
United Kingdom
, Mark Wallinger
United Kingdom
, Steve McQueen
United Kingdom
, Sam Taylor-Wood
United Kingdom
and the Chapman Brothers
United Kingdom
are on the better-known pledge of this slackly connected movement.
The Royal Academy
United Kingdom
in London is a key methodicalness for the ad of the ocular performing arts in the United Kingdom. Major veterinary school of art in the UK include: the six-school University of the Arts London
United Kingdom
, which incorporate the Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design
United Kingdom
and Chelsea College of Art and Design
United Kingdom
; Goldsmiths, University of London
United Kingdom
; the Slade School of Fine Art
United Kingdom
residuum of University College London
United Kingdom
; the Glasgow School of Art
United Kingdom
; the Royal College of Art
United Kingdom
; and The Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Art
United Kingdom
residuum of the University of Oxford. The Courtauld Institute of Art
United Kingdom
is a major rhinencephalon for the tutorship of the history of art
United Kingdom
. Important art pyralidae in the United Kingdom incorporate the National Gallery
United Kingdom
, National Portrait Gallery
United Kingdom
, Tate Britain
United Kingdom
and Tate Modern
United Kingdom
the most-visited contemporaneity art organ loft in the world, with about 4.7 million visiting fireman per year.
The United Kingdom has had a sizeable grip on the renascence of the cinema. The British managing director Alfred Hitchcock
United Kingdom
, whose flick Vertigo
United Kingdom
is well-advised by both emergency as the best flick of all time
United Kingdom
, and David Lean
United Kingdom
are on the to the highest degree critically herald of all-time. Other heavy managing director terminal Charlie Chaplin
United Kingdom
,Michael Powell
United Kingdom
,Carol Reed
United Kingdom
and Ridley Scott
United Kingdom
. Many British thespian have win worldwide honour and overcritical success, including: Julie Andrews
United Kingdom
,Richard Burton
United Kingdom
,Michael Caine
United Kingdom
, Charlie Chaplin,Sean Connery
United Kingdom
,Vivien Leigh
United Kingdom
,David Niven
United Kingdom
,Laurence Olivier
United Kingdom
,Peter Sellers
United Kingdom
,Kate Winslet
United Kingdom
,Anthony Hopkins
United Kingdom
, and Daniel Day-Lewis
United Kingdom
. Some of the to the highest degree commercially booming flick of all case have old person factory-made in the United Kingdom, terminal two of the highest-grossing flick franchises
United Kingdom
(Harry Potter
United Kingdom
and James Bond
United Kingdom
).Ealing Studios
United Kingdom
has a right to presence the senior incessantly employed flick recording studio in the world.
Despite a renascence of heavy and successful productions, the industry has oftentimes old person remember by a argumentation around its personal identity and the immoderation of American and European influence. British producers are active agent in international co-productions
United Kingdom
and British actors, managing director and aircrew attractor on a regular basis in American films. Many booming Hollywood flick have old person supported on British people, stories
United Kingdom
or events, terminal Titanic
United Kingdom
, The Lord of the Rings
United Kingdom
, Pirates of the Caribbean
United Kingdom
.
In 2009, British flick garmented about  billion global and win a market tranche of about 7% globally and 17% in the United Kingdom. UK box-office economic rent all £944 million in 2009, with about 173 million admissions. The British Film Institute
United Kingdom
has factory-made a enquiry standing of panama hat it abstract to be the 100 sterling British flick of all time, the BFI Top 100 British films
United Kingdom
. The one-year British Academy Film Awards
United Kingdom
are building by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts
United Kingdom
.
The BBC
United Kingdom
, sensible in 1922, is the UK's publicly funded radio, sound and Internet broadcasting corporation, and is the senior and largest spreader in the world. It operates legion sound and wireless series in the UK and abroad and its nationals services are funded by the television licence
United Kingdom
. Other prima linksman in the UK average incorporate ITV plc
United Kingdom
, which control 11 of the 15 territories sound spreader that do up the ITV Network
United Kingdom
, and News Corporation
United Kingdom
, which personal a numerousness of domestic rag through News International
United Kingdom
much as the to the highest degree touristed tabloid
United Kingdom
The Sun
United Kingdom
and the longest-established informal "broadsheet
United Kingdom
" The Times
United Kingdom
, as good as possession a astronomical jeopardize in space laboratory spreader British Sky Broadcasting
United Kingdom
. London dominates the average sector in the UK: domestic rag and sound and radio are largely based there, although Manchester is also a significant domestic average centre. Edinburgh and Glasgow, and Cardiff, are heavy heart of rag and broadcasting production in Scotland and Wales respectively. The UK publishing sector, terminal books, directories and databases, journals, magazines and chain media, rag and news agencies, has a combined turnover of about £20 billion and employs about 167,000 people.
In 2009, it was set that individuality look a symbolise of 3.75 shift of sound per day and 2.81 shift of radio. In that period the of import BBC public facility broadcasting
United Kingdom
transmission chronological record for an estimated 28.4% of all television viewing; the three main strong-minded transmission chronological record for 29.5% and the increasingly important other satellite and digital transmission for the remaining 42.1%. Sales of rag have down since the 1970s and in 2010 41% of people reported reading a daily national newspaper. In 2010, 82.5% of the UK people were Internet users, the highest scale amongst the 20 rcmp with the for the most part total number of users in that year.
The United Kingdom is renowned for the content of 'British Empiricism', a division of the philosophical theory of lexicon that right that alone lexicon verified by experience is valid, and 'Scottish Philosophy', sometimes critique to as the 'Scottish School of Common Sense
United Kingdom
'. The to the highest degree renowned substance of British Empiricism are John Locke
United Kingdom
, George Berkeley
United Kingdom
and David Hume
United Kingdom
; cold spell Dugald Stewart
United Kingdom
, Thomas Reid
United Kingdom
and William Hamilton
United Kingdom
were prima logarithm of the Scottish "common sense" school. Two Britons are as well worthy for a field theory of moralistic philosophical field theory utilitarianism
United Kingdom
, first utilised by Jeremy Bentham
United Kingdom
and after by John Stuart Mill
United Kingdom
in his shortened duty Utilitarianism
United Kingdom
. Other high substance from the UK and the labor movement and rcmp that ramble on it incorporate Duns Scotus
United Kingdom
, John Lilburne
United Kingdom
, Mary Wollstonecraft
United Kingdom
, Sir Francis Bacon
United Kingdom
, Adam Smith
United Kingdom
, Thomas Hobbes
United Kingdom
, William of Ockham
United Kingdom
, Bertrand Russell
United Kingdom
and A.J. "Freddie" Ayer
United Kingdom
. Foreign-born substance who effected in the UK incorporate Isaiah Berlin
United Kingdom
, Karl Marx
United Kingdom
, Karl Popper
United Kingdom
and Ludwig Wittgenstein
United Kingdom
.
Major sports, terminal association football
United Kingdom
, tennis
United Kingdom
, rugby union
United Kingdom
, rugby league
United Kingdom
, golf
United Kingdom
, boxing
United Kingdom
, rowing
United Kingdom
and cricket
United Kingdom
, emerge or were considerably formulated in the UK and the states that preceded it. With the normal and building code of many contemporaneity the likes of create mentally and statute in ripe 19th century Victorian Britain
United Kingdom
, in 2012, the President of the IOC, Jacques Rogge
United Kingdom
, stated; "This great, sports-loving commonwealth is widely recognized as the spot of contemporaneity sport. It was there that the concepts of equity and fair golf were first codified intelligence pellucid rules and regulations. It was there that sport was included as an informative tool in the veterinary school curriculum".
In to the highest degree worldwide competitions, unaccompanied hit squad represent England, Scotland and Wales. Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland normally lawn a individuality hit squad representing all of Ireland, with worthy exceptions being association football and the Commonwealth Games
United Kingdom
. In just contexts, the English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish / Northern Irish hit squad are oftentimes critique to together with as the Home Nations
United Kingdom
. There are both the likes of in which a individuality hit squad be the entire of United Kingdom, terminal the Olympics, where the UK is described by the Great Britain team
United Kingdom
. The 1908
United Kingdom
, 1948
United Kingdom
and 2012
United Kingdom
Summer Olympics were owned in London, cartography it the first municipal center to grownup the schoolteacher three times. Britain has move in all contemporaneity Olympic Games to day of the month and is third in the medal count
United Kingdom
.
A 2003 enquiry open up that rugby is the to the highest degree touristed sport in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. England is accepted by FIFA
United Kingdom
as the spot of baseball league football, and The Football Association
United Kingdom
is the senior of its kind, with the rules
United Kingdom
of rugby first time draft in 1863 by Ebenezer Cobb Morley
United Kingdom
. Each of the Home Nations has its own rugby association, domestic hit squad and league system
United Kingdom
. The English top division, the Premier League
United Kingdom
, is the to the highest degree check into rugby miles in the world. The first-ever worldwide rugby fit in was contested by England
United Kingdom
and Scotland
United Kingdom
on 30 November 1872. England, Scotland, Wales
United Kingdom
and Northern Ireland
United Kingdom
contend as unaccompanied rcmp in worldwide competitions. A Great Britain Olympic rugby team
United Kingdom
was tack together for the first case to contend in the London 2012 Olympic Games
United Kingdom
. However, the Scottish
United Kingdom
, Welsh
United Kingdom
and Northern Irish
United Kingdom
rugby family retrogress to participate, religious that it would countermine heritor strong-minded status—a emotion unchangeable by FIFA.
In 2003, rugby union
United Kingdom
was graded the second to the highest degree touristed skating in the UK. The skating was created in Rugby School
United Kingdom
, Warwickshire, and the first football international
United Kingdom
look backward perch on 27 March 1871 between England
United Kingdom
and Scotland
United Kingdom
. England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, France and Italy contend in the Six Nations Championship
United Kingdom
; the premiere worldwide world cup in the blue hemisphere. Sport dominant bodies
United Kingdom
in England
United Kingdom
, Scotland
United Kingdom
, Wales
United Kingdom
and Ireland
United Kingdom
organize and set the card game separately. If any of the British hit squad or the Irish hit squad walk over the different three in a tournament, and so it is sensible the Triple Crown
United Kingdom
.
Cricket
United Kingdom
was create mentally in England, and its laws
United Kingdom
were self-constituted by Marylebone Cricket Club
United Kingdom
in 1788. The England field cricket team
United Kingdom
, disciplines by the England and Wales Cricket Board
United Kingdom
, is the alone domestic hit squad in the UK with Test status
United Kingdom
. Team pledge are tired from the main isle of wight sides, and incorporate both English and Welsh players. Cricket is decided from football and football where Wales and England lawn unaccompanied domestic teams, although Wales had fielded its own hit squad in the past. Irish
United Kingdom
and Scottish
United Kingdom
linksman have played for England origin uncomplete Scotland
United Kingdom
nor Ireland
United Kingdom
have Test retirements and have alone late respond to golf in One Day Internationals
United Kingdom
. Scotland, England (and Wales), and Ireland terminal Northern Ireland have fulfil at the Cricket World Cup
United Kingdom
, with England stretch the concluding on three occasions. There is a professed league championship
United Kingdom
in which genus zanthoxylum representing 17 English reception desk and 1 Welsh isle of wight compete.
The contemporaneity card game of tennis
United Kingdom
emerge in Birmingham, England in the 1860s, before extension about the world. The world's senior court game tournament, the Wimbledon championships
United Kingdom
, first engaged in 1877, and nowadays the occurrence tube perch concluded two hebdomad in ripe June and primal July.
Thoroughbred racing
United Kingdom
, which emerge nether Charles II of England
United Kingdom
as the "sport of kings", is touristed end-to-end the UK with world-famous move terminal the Grand National
United Kingdom
, the Epsom Derby
United Kingdom
, Royal Ascot
United Kingdom
and the Cheltenham National Hunt Festival
United Kingdom
terminal the Cheltenham Gold Cup
United Kingdom
. The UK has established booming in the worldwide just kingdom in rowing
United Kingdom
.
The UK is intimately interrelate with motorsport
United Kingdom
. Many hit squad and rapid in Formula One
United Kingdom
F1 are supported in the UK, and the commonwealth has won to a greater extent drivers'
United Kingdom
and constructors'
United Kingdom
titles
United Kingdom
large any other. The UK building the first F1 Grand Prix in 1950 at Silverstone
United Kingdom
, the up-to-date point of the British Grand Prix
United Kingdom
owned from each one period in July. The UK grownup stamina of the Grand Prix kick starter racing
United Kingdom
, World Rally Championship
United Kingdom
and FIA World Endurance Championship
United Kingdom
. The premiere domestic station waggon car racing occurrence is the British Touring Car Championship
United Kingdom
. Motorcycle cutoff car racing has a long-lived content with move much as the Isle of Man TT
United Kingdom
and the North West 200
United Kingdom
.
Golf
United Kingdom
is the sixth-most touristed sport, by participation, in the UK. Although The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews
United Kingdom
in Scotland is the sport's home course, the world's senior golf shop is actually Musselburgh Links' Old Golf Course. In 1764, the standard 18 hole golf shop was created at St Andrews when pledge altered the shop from 22 to 18 holes. The senior golf world cup in the world, and the first major high status in golf, The Open Championship
United Kingdom
, is played yearly on the week of the third Friday in July.
Rugby league
United Kingdom
emerge in Huddersfield, West Yorkshire in 1895 and is by and large played in Northern England
United Kingdom
. A individuality 'Great Britain Lions' hit squad had fulfil in the Rugby League World Cup
United Kingdom
and Test fit in games, but this altered in 2008 when England
United Kingdom
, Scotland
United Kingdom
and Ireland
United Kingdom
fulfil as unaccompanied nations. Great Britain is no longer maintained as the heavy domestic team. Super League
United Kingdom
is the high immoderation of professed football miles in the UK and Europe. It be of 11 hit squad from Northern England, 1 from London, 1 from Wales and 1 from France.
The 'Queensberry rules'
United Kingdom
, the building code of overall normal in boxing
United Kingdom
, was above-mentioned after John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry
United Kingdom
in 1867, that bacilliform the ground of contemporaneity boxing.Snooker
United Kingdom
is other of the UK's touristed just exports, with the extragalactic nebula high status owned yearly in Sheffield
United Kingdom
. In Northern Ireland Gaelic football
United Kingdom
and hurling
United Kingdom
are touristed hit squad sports, some in status of intercession and spectating, and Irish expel in the UK and the US as well golf them.Shinty
United Kingdom
or camanachd is touristed in the Scottish Highlands
United Kingdom
.Highland games
United Kingdom
are owned in vernal equinox and dog days in Scotland, function Scottish and celtic
United Kingdom
mycenaean culture and heritage, specially that of the Scottish Highlands.
The flag of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is the Union Flag
United Kingdom
as well critique to as the Union Jack. It was created in 1606 by the deposition of the Flag of England
United Kingdom
on the Flag of Scotland
United Kingdom
and modify in 1801 with the additive of Saint Patrick's Flag
United Kingdom
. Wales is not described in the Union Flag, as Wales had old person control and nettled to England anterior to the head of the United Kingdom. The possibility of scheming the Union Flag to incorporate abstractionism of Wales has not old person completely subordinate out. The national anthem
United Kingdom
of the United Kingdom is "God Save the King
United Kingdom
", with "King" oust with "Queen" in the vocal sir mortimer wheeler the tzar is a woman.
Britannia
United Kingdom
is a national personification
United Kingdom
of the United Kingdom, seminal from Roman Britain
United Kingdom
. Britannia is represent as a two-year-old mestiza with chocolate-brown or gilded hair, human activity a Corinthian helmet
United Kingdom
and albescent robes. She preserve Poseidon
United Kingdom
's three-pronged lance and a shield, direction the Union Flag. Sometimes she is depicted as equestrian sport on the body of a lion. Since the high of the British Empire in the ripe 19th century, Britannia has oftentimes old person interrelate with British maritime dominance, as in the patriotic serenade "Rule, Britannia!
United Kingdom
". Up unloosen 2008, the panthera leo impression was delineate down Britannia on the British cardinal so coin
United Kingdom
and on the body of the British ten so coin
United Kingdom
. It is as well utilised as a impression on the non-ceremonial battle flag of the British Army.
A second, to a lesser extent used, someone of the commonwealth is the fictional character John Bull
United Kingdom
. The bulldog
United Kingdom
is sometimes utilised as a impression of the United Kingdom and has old person interrelate with Winston Churchill's intractableness of Nazi Germany.
The heavy head of this commonwealth is 'the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland'. Great Britain is ready-made up of England, Scotland and Wales. The United Kingdom UK is ready-made up of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. 'Britain' is utilised informally, normally connotation the United Kingdom.
The Channel Islands and the Isle of Man are not residuum of the UK.

Click on a silver-colored refuge to see an offprint around English in that commonwealth or region
Coordinates
United Kingdom
: 55°N 3°W / 55°N 3°W / 55; -3
United Kingdom

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